Y. Xu, C. M. Gall, V. R. Jackson, O. Civelli, and R. K. Reinscheid, Distribution of Neuropeptide S Receptor mRNA and Neurochemical Characteristics of Neuropeptide S-Expressing Neurons in the Rat Brain, J Comp Neurol, vol.504, issue.3, pp.287-297, 2007.

X. Liu, J. Zeng, A. Zhou, E. Theodorsson, J. Fahrenkrug et al., Molecular fingerprint of neuropeptide s-producing neurons in the mouse brain, J Comp Neurol, vol.519, issue.10, pp.1847-1866, 2011.

N. Okamura, C. Garau, and D. M. Duangdao, Neuropeptide S enhances memory during the consolidation phase and interacts with noradrenergic systems in the brain, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.36, issue.4, pp.744-752, 2011.

R. Han, X. Yin, M. Chang, Y. Peng, W. Li et al., Neuropeptide S facilitates spatial memory and mitigates spatial memory impairment induced by N-methyl-daspartate receptor antagonist in mice, Neurosci Lett, vol.455, issue.1, pp.74-77, 2009.

J. Thomasson, F. Canini, B. Poly-thomasson, M. Trousselard, S. Granon et al.,

, Neuropeptide S overcomes short term memory deficit induced by sleep restriction by increasing prefrontal cortex activity, Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, vol.27, issue.12, pp.1308-1318, 2017.

Y. Xu, R. K. Reinscheid, and S. Huitron-resendiz, Neuropeptide S: a neuropeptide promoting arousal and anxiolytic-like effects, Neuron, vol.43, issue.4, pp.487-497, 2004.

S. K. Leonard, J. M. Dwyer, S. Rizzo, and S. J. , Pharmacology of neuropeptide S in mice: therapeutic relevance to anxiety disorders, Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol.197, issue.4, pp.601-611, 2008.

G. Vitale, M. Filaferro, and V. Ruggieri, Anxiolytic-like effect of neuropeptide S in the rat defensive burying, Peptides, vol.29, issue.12, pp.2286-2291, 2008.

K. Jüngling, T. Seidenbecher, and L. Sosulina, Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala, Neuron, vol.59, issue.2, pp.298-310, 2008.

F. Chauveau, M. D. Lange, K. Jüngling, J. Lesting, T. Seidenbecher et al., Prevention of stress-impaired fear extinction through neuropeptide s action in the lateral amygdala, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.37, issue.7, pp.1588-1599, 2012.

C. Chan-chee, V. Bayon, J. Bloch, F. Beck, J. P. Giordanella et al., Epidemiology of insomnia in France, Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique, vol.59, issue.6, pp.409-422, 2011.

E. S. Ford, T. J. Cunningham, W. H. Giles, and J. B. Croft, Trends in insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness among U.S. adults from 2002 to 2012, Sleep Med, vol.16, issue.3, pp.372-378, 2015.

P. Zhao, Y. F. Shao, and M. Zhang, Neuropeptide S promotes wakefulness through activation of the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic neurons

, Neuroscience, vol.207, pp.218-226, 2012.

M. Oishi, T. Kushikata, and H. Niwa, Endogenous neuropeptide S tone influences sleepwake rhythm in rats, Neurosci Lett, vol.581, pp.94-97, 2014.

J. Spada, C. Sander, and R. Burkhardt, Genetic Association of Objective Sleep Phenotypes with a Functional Polymorphism in the Neuropeptide S Receptor Gene

, PLoS One, vol.9, issue.6, p.98789, 2014.

C. Adori, S. Barde, and S. Vas, Exploring the role of neuropeptide S in the regulation of arousal: a functional anatomical study, Brain Struct Funct, vol.221, issue.7, pp.3521-3546, 2015.

J. Lu, M. A. Greco, P. Shiromani, and C. B. Saper, Effect of lesions of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on NREM and REM sleep, J Neurosci, vol.20, issue.10, pp.3830-3842, 2000.

J. E. Sherin, P. J. Shiromani, R. W. Mccarley, and C. B. Saper, Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons during sleep, Science, vol.271, issue.5246, pp.216-219, 1996.

R. Szymusiak, N. Alam, T. L. Steininger, and D. Mcginty, Sleep-waking discharge patterns of ventrolateral preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons in rats, Brain Res, vol.803, issue.1-2, pp.178-188, 1998.

S. Gong, C. Zheng, and M. L. Doughty, A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes, Nature, vol.425, issue.6961, pp.917-925, 2003.

C. Varin, A. Rancillac, H. Geoffroy, S. Arthaud, P. Fort et al., Glucose Induces SlowWave Sleep by Exciting the Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus: A New Link between Sleep and Metabolism, J Neurosci, vol.35, issue.27, pp.9900-9911, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02121070

K. Franklin and G. Paxinos, The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, 1997.

R. Dubourget, A. Sangare, H. Geoffroy, T. Gallopin, and A. Rancillac, Multiparametric characterization of neuronal subpopulations in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Brain Struct Funct, vol.2016, pp.1-15
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02126237

A. Sangare, R. Dubourget, H. Geoffroy, T. Gallopin, and A. Rancillac, Serotonin differentially modulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to putative sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Neuropharmacology, vol.109, pp.29-40, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02121065

N. K. Logothetis, J. Pauls, M. Augath, T. Trinath, and A. Oeltermann, Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal, Nature, vol.412, issue.6843, pp.150-157, 2001.

B. Cauli, X. K. Tong, and A. Rancillac, Cortical GABA interneurons in neurovascular coupling: relays for subcortical vasoactive pathways, J Neurosci, vol.24, issue.41, pp.8940-8949, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00086334

A. Rancillac, J. Rossier, and M. Guille, Glutamatergic Control of Microvascular Tone by Distinct GABA Neurons in the Cerebellum, J Neurosci, vol.26, issue.26, pp.6997-7006, 2006.

E. Macé, G. Montaldo, I. Cohen, M. Baulac, M. Fink et al., Functional ultrasound imaging of the brain, Nat Methods, vol.8, issue.8, pp.662-664, 2011.

C. Iadecola, The Neurovascular Unit Coming of Age: A Journey through Neurovascular Coupling in Health and Disease, Neuron, vol.96, issue.1, pp.17-42, 2017.

E. Scharbarg, M. Daenens, and F. Lemaître, Astrocyte-derived adenosine is central to the hypnogenic effect of glucose, Sci Rep, vol.6, p.19107, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01270584

T. Gallopin, P. Fort, E. Eggermann, B. Cauli, and M. Mu, Identication of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro, Nature, vol.404, pp.3-6, 2000.

Y. Liu, W. Zuo, and J. Ye, Propofol stimulates noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus by reducing GABAergic inhibition, Anesth Analg, vol.117, issue.2, pp.358-363, 2013.

J. T. Moore, J. Chen, and B. Han, Direct activation of sleep-promoting VLPO neurons by volatile anesthetics contributes to anesthetic hypnosis, Curr Biol, vol.22, issue.21, pp.2008-2016, 2012.

H. S. Mccarren, M. R. Chalifoux, and B. Han, 2-Adrenergic Stimulation of the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus Destabilizes the Anesthetic State, J Neurosci, vol.34, issue.49, pp.16385-16396, 2014.

S. Matsuo, I. Jang, J. Nabekura, and N. Akaike, alpha 2-Adrenoceptor-mediated presynaptic modulation of GABAergic transmission in mechanically dissociated rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons, J Neurophysiol, vol.89, pp.1640-1648, 2003.

Y. Liu, J. Li, and J. Ye, Histamine regulates activities of neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, J Physiol, vol.588, pp.4103-4116, 2010.

R. H. Williams, M. Chee, and D. Kroeger, Optogenetic-mediated release of histamine reveals distal and autoregulatory mechanisms for controlling arousal, J Neurosci, vol.34, issue.17, pp.6023-6029, 2014.

T. Gallopin, P. H. Luppi, and B. Cauli, The endogenous somnogen adenosine excites a subset of sleep-promoting neurons via A2A receptors in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Neuroscience, vol.134, pp.1377-1390, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00086786

S. E. Gaus, R. E. Strecker, B. A. Tate, R. A. Parker, and C. B. Saper, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic neurons in multiple mammalian species, Neuroscience, vol.115, issue.1, pp.285-294, 2002.

J. Lu, A. A. Bjorkum, M. Xu, S. E. Gaus, P. J. Shiromani et al., Selective activation of the extended ventrolateral preoptic nucleus during rapid eye movement sleep, J Neurosci, vol.22, issue.11, pp.4568-4576, 2002.

J. E. Sherin, J. K. Elmquist, F. Torrealba, and C. B. Saper, Innervation of histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons by GABAergic and galaninergic neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the rat, J Neurosci, vol.18, issue.12, pp.4705-4721, 1998.

D. Kroeger, G. Absi, and C. Gagliardi, Galanin neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area promote sleep and heat loss in mice, Nat Commun, vol.9, p.4129, 2018.

S. Meis, J. R. Bergado-acosta, Y. Yanagawa, K. Obata, O. Stork et al., Identification of a neuropeptide S responsive circuitry shaping amygdala activity via the endopiriform nucleus, PLoS One, vol.3, issue.7, p.2695, 2008.

A. Rizzi, R. Vergura, and G. Marzola, Neuropeptide S is a stimulatory anxiolytic agent: a behavioural study in mice, Br J Pharmacol, vol.154, issue.2, pp.471-479, 2009.

T. Kushikata, H. Yoshida, M. Kudo, S. Salvadori, G. Calo et al., The Effects of Neuropeptide S on General Anesthesia in Rats, Anesth Analg, vol.112, issue.4, pp.845-849, 2011.

H. Gong, D. Mcginty, R. Guzman-marin, K. Chew, D. Stewart et al., Activation of c-fos in GABAergic neurones in the preoptic area during sleep and in response to sleep deprivation, J Physiol, vol.556, pp.935-946, 2004.

H. Gong, R. Szymusiak, J. King, T. Steininger, and D. Mcginty, Sleep-related c-Fos protein expression in the preoptic hypothalamus: effects of ambient warming, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, vol.279, issue.6, pp.2079-88, 2000.

A. Uschakov, H. Gong, D. Mcginty, and R. Szymusiak, Sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area project to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and perifornical lateral hypothalamus, Eur J Neurosci, vol.23, pp.3284-3296, 2006.

C. Anaclet, L. Ferrari, and E. Arrigoni, The GABAergic parafacial zone is a medullary slow wave sleep-promoting center, Nat Neurosci, vol.17, issue.9, pp.1217-1224, 2014.

C. Anaclet, J. Lin, and R. Vetrivelan, Identification and Characterization of a SleepActive Cell Group in the Rostral Medullary Brainstem, J Neurosci, vol.32, issue.50, pp.17970-17976, 2012.

C. Batini, G. Moruzzi, M. Palestini, G. F. Rossi, and A. Zanchetti, Presistent patterns of wakefulness in the pretrigeminal midpontine preparation, Science, vol.128, issue.3314, pp.30-32, 1958.

M. Steriade, Synchronized activities of coupled oscillators in the cerebral cortex and thalamus at different levels of vigilance, Cereb Cortex, vol.7, issue.6, pp.583-604, 1997.

A. Ahnaou and W. Drinkenburg, Neuropeptide-S evoked arousal with electroencephalogram slow-wave compensatory drive in rats, Neuropsychobiology, vol.65, issue.4, pp.195-205, 2012.

J. G. Sutcliffe and L. De-lecea, The hypocretins: setting the arousal threshold, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.3, issue.5, pp.339-349, 2002.

Y. C. Saito, N. Tsujino, and E. Hasegawa, GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area send direct inhibitory projections to orexin neurons, Front Neural Circuits, vol.7, p.192, 2013.

R. K. Reinscheid and Y. Xu, Neuropeptide S and its receptor: a newly deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor system, Neuroscientist, vol.11, issue.6, pp.532-538, 2005.

F. Erdmann, S. Kügler, and P. Blaesse, Neuronal Expression of the Human Neuropeptide S Receptor NPSR1 Identifies NPS-Induced Calcium Signaling Pathways, PLoS One, vol.10, issue.2, p.117319, 2015.

K. Ebner, A. Rjabokon, H. Pape, and N. Singewald, Increased in vivo release of neuropeptide S in the amygdala of freely moving rats after local depolarisation and emotional stress

, Amino Acids, vol.41, issue.4, pp.991-996, 2011.

G. Wegener, B. C. Finger, and B. Elfving, Neuropeptide S alters anxiety, but not depression-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line rats: a genetic animal model of depression, Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, vol.15, issue.3, pp.375-387, 2012.

A. R. Wade and J. Rowland, Early Suppressive Mechanisms and the Negative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Response in Human Visual Cortex, J Neurosci, vol.30, issue.14, pp.5008-5019, 2010.

A. Devor, P. Tian, and N. Nishimura, Suppressed neuronal activity and concurrent arteriolar vasoconstriction may explain negative blood oxygenation level-dependent signal, J Neurosci, vol.27, issue.16, pp.4452-4459, 2007.