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Disruption of IRE1α through its kinase domain attenuates multiple myeloma

Jonathan M Harnoss 1 Adrien Le Thomas 1 Anna Shemorry 1 Scot A Marsters 1 David S Lawrence 1 Min Lu 1 yung-Chia Ariel Chen 1 Jing Qing 1 Klara Totpal 2 David Kan 2 Ehud Segal 2 Mark Merchant 2 Mike Reichelt 3 Heidi Ackerly Wallweber 4 Weiru Wang 4 Kevin Clark 5 Susan Kaufman 5 Maureen H Beresini 5 Steven T Laing 3 Wendy Sandoval 6 Maria Lorenzo 7 Jiansheng Wu 7 Justin Ly 8 Tom de Bruyn 8 Amy Heidersbach 9 Benjamin Haley 9 Alvin Gogineni 10 Robby M Weimer 10 Dong Lee 11 Marie-Gabrielle Braun 12 Joachim Rudolph 12 Michael J Vanwyngarden 13 Daniel W Sherbenou 13 Patricia Gomez-Bougie 14, 15 Martine Amiot 14, 15 Diego Acosta-Alvear 16, 17 Peter Walter 16, 17 Avi Ashkenazi 1, * 
Abstract : Multiple myeloma (MM) arises from malignant immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells and remains an incurable, often lethal disease despite therapeutic advances. The unfolded-protein response sensor IRE1α supports protein secretion by deploying a kinase-endoribonuclease module to activate the transcription factor XBP1s. MM cells may co-opt the IRE1α-XBP1s pathway; however, the validity of IRE1α as a potential MM therapeutic target is controversial. Genetic disruption of IRE1α or XBP1s, or pharmacologic IRE1α kinase inhibition, attenuated subcutaneous or orthometastatic growth of MM tumors in mice and augmented efficacy of two established frontline antimyeloma agents, bortezomib and lenalidomide. Mechanistically, IRE1α perturbation inhibited expression of key components of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation machinery, as well as secretion of Ig light chains and of cytokines and chemokines known to promote MM growth. Selective IRE1α kinase inhibition reduced viability of CD138 + plasma cells while sparing CD138 − cells derived from bone marrows of newly diagnosed or posttreatment-relapsed MM patients, in both US-and European Union-based cohorts. Effective IRE1α inhibition preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic microislets and viability of primary hepatocytes in vitro, as well as normal tissue homeostasis in mice. These results establish a strong rationale for developing kinase-directed inhibitors of IRE1α for MM therapy. multiple myeloma | endoplasmic reticulum stress | unfolded protein response | inositol-requiring enzyme 1 | kinase inhibitors M ultiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common human hematologic cancer. It carries a lifetime risk of 0.7% and occurs mainly in older individuals. MM is caused by bone marrow infiltration by malignant, monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells (1). Despite significant therapeutic advances-including proteasome inhibitors (PIs), immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), and anti-CD38 antibodies-MM remains mainly incurable, with acquired resistance to all available agents, and a 5-y survival rate of 49% (2). Considering the growth of aging populations in many countries, there is an urgent unmet need for development of novel MM therapies. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ensures precise folding of newly synthesized secretory proteins. Upon elevated cellular demand for protein secretion-for example, when mature B cells differentiate into Ig-secreting plasma cells-insufficient ER capacity causes accumulation of unfolded proteins (UPs) in the ER lumen. This activates a sensing-signaling network dubbed the UP response (UPR) to orchestrate ER adaptation and reestablish homeostasis (3-6). The mammalian UPR employs three pivotal ER-resident transmembrane sensors: inositol-requiring enzyme Significance Multiple myeloma (MM) is a lethal malignancy arising from plasma cells. MM cells experience endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to immunoglobulin hyperproduction. The ER-resident sensor IRE1α mitigates ER stress by expanding protein-folding and secretion capacity, while supporting proteasomal degradation of ER misfolded proteins. IRE1α elaborates these functions by deploying a cytoplasmic kinase-RNase module to activate the transcription factor XBP1s. Although IRE1α has been implicated in MM, its validity as a potential therapeutic target-particularly as a kinase-has been unclear. Using genetic and pharmacologic disruption, we demonstrate that the IRE1α-XBP1s pathway is critical for MM tumor growth. We further show that the kinase domain of IRE1α is an effective and safe potential small-molecule target for MM therapy.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 12, 2019 - 3:56:22 PM
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Jonathan M Harnoss, Adrien Le Thomas, Anna Shemorry, Scot A Marsters, David S Lawrence, et al.. Disruption of IRE1α through its kinase domain attenuates multiple myeloma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, National Academy of Sciences, 2019, pp.201906999. ⟨10.1073/pnas.1906999116⟩. ⟨inserm-02265831⟩



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