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, Barnich at the University of Clermont-Auvergne for providing us with important bacteria material necessary for the revision of the present work. We thank D. Dubois at the CHU Toulouse for providing human fecal samples. We thank Laurent Brechenmacher at the Southern Alberta Mass Spectrometry (SAMS) core-facility for acquiring the proteomics data. This work was supported by a grant from the European Research Council (ERC-310973 PIPE) to NV. Tissue collection was originally sponsored by the University Hospital of Toulouse for regulatory and ethic submission, and by a grant from the delegation régionale à la recherche clinique des hôpitaux de Toulouse, through the MICILIP project. The COLIC collection (DC-2015-2443) was also used in the present study. The work used the Aninfimip core facility equipments, supported by Equipex funds from the National "Investments for the future" program (ANR-11-EQPX-0003). JPM was funded by postdoctoral fellowships from the Alberta-Innovate Health Services (AIHS) and from EU's Seventh Framework Programme N°FP7-609398 (AgreenSkills + contract). EFV holds a CRC and is Supported by CIHR MOP# 142773 and a CCC grant in Aid