R. G. Webster, A. S. Monto, T. J. Braciale, and R. A. Lamb, , 2013.

W. De-steenhuijsen-piters, E. Sanders, D. Bogaert, E. Grice, and J. Segre, The role of the local microbial ecosystem in respiratory health and disease, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences, vol.370, pp.244-253, 2015.

A. Boianelli, N. Sharma-chawla, D. Bruder, and E. A. Hernandez-vargas, Oseltamivir PK/PD Modelling and Simulation to Evaluate Treatment Strategies against Influenza-Pneumococcus Coinfection, Front Cell Infect Microbiol, vol.6, p.27379214, 2016.

L. Opatowski, E. Varon, C. Dupont, L. Temime, and S. Van-der-werf, Assessing pneumococcal meningitis association with viral respiratory infections and antibiotics: insights from statistical and mathematical models, Proceedings Biological sciences, vol.280, 2013.

S. Shrestha, B. Foxman, J. Berus, W. G. Van-panhuis, and C. Steiner, The role of influenza in the epidemiology of pneumonia, Scientific Reports, vol.5, p.26486591, 2015.

Y. W. Chien, B. R. Levin, and K. P. Klugman, The anticipated severity of a "1918-like" influenza pandemic in contemporary populations: The contribution of antibacterial interventions, PLoS ONE, vol.7, 2012.

S. Crowe, M. Utley, G. Walker, P. Grove, and C. Pagel, A model to evaluate mass vaccination against pneumococcus as a countermeasure against pandemic influenza, Vaccine, vol.29, p.21539879, 2011.

A. Handel, I. M. Longini, and R. Antia, Intervention strategies for an influenza pandemic taking into account secondary bacterial infections, Epidemics, vol.1, p.20161493, 2009.

S. Shrestha, B. Foxman, D. M. Weinberger, C. Steiner, and C. Viboud, Identifying the Interaction Between Influenza and Pneumococcal Pneumonia Using Incidence Data, Science Translational Medicine, vol.5, pp.191-184, 2013.

H. Arduin, D. De-celles, M. Guillemot, D. Watier, L. Opatowski et al., An agent-based model simulation of influenza interactions at the host level: insight into the influenza-related burden of pneumococcal infections, BMC Infect Dis, vol.17, p.28577533, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01532387

A. Yan, P. Cao, J. M. Heffernan, J. Mcvernon, and K. M. Quinn, Modelling cross-reactivity and memory in the cellular adaptive immune response to influenza infection in the host, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.413, p.27856216, 2017.

P. Cao, A. Yan, J. M. Heffernan, S. Petrie, and R. G. Moss, Innate Immunity and the Inter-exposure Interval Determine the Dynamics of Secondary Influenza Virus Infection and Explain Observed Viral Hierarchies, PLoS Comput Biol, vol.11, p.26284917, 2015.

K. Zakikhany, M. A. Degail, T. Lamagni, P. Waight, and R. Guy, Increase in invasive streptococcus pyogenes and streptococcus pneumoniae infections in England, Eurosurveillance, vol.16, pp.1-4, 2010.

L. Pinky and H. M. Dobrovolny, Coinfections of the Respiratory Tract: Viral Competition for Resources, PLoS ONE, vol.11, p.27196110, 2016.

A. J. Kucharski, V. Andreasen, and J. R. Gog, Capturing the dynamics of pathogens with many strains, J Math Biol, vol.72, p.25800537, 2016.

N. M. Ferguson, A. P. Galvani, and R. M. Bush, Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution, Nature, vol.422, p.12660783, 2003.

L. Ackerman-e, S. Im, . Sk, and . Hedin-Ås, Simulation of Mechanisms of Viral Interference in Influenza, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.19, p.2376460, 1990.

S. Merler, P. Poletti, M. Ajelli, B. Caprile, and P. Manfredi, Coinfection can trigger multiple pandemic waves, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.254, p.18606170, 2008.

J. X. Velasco-hernández, M. Núñez-lópez, A. Comas-garcía, D. Cherpitel, and M. C. Ocampo, Superinfection between Influenza and RSV Alternating Patterns in San Luis Potosí State, México. PLoS ONE, vol.10, p.25803450, 2015.

O. M. Araz, A. Galvani, and L. A. Meyers, Geographic prioritization of distributing pandemic influenza vaccines, Health Care Management Science, vol.15, p.22618029, 2012.

S. Madhi and K. P. Klugman, A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia, Nature medicine, vol.10, p.15247911, 2004.

L. Simonsen, R. J. Taylor, Y. Young-xu, M. Haber, and L. May, Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants on pneumonia and influenza hospitalization and mortality in all age groups in the United States, MBio, vol.2, p.21264063, 2011.

Y. Tsai, M. Hsieh, C. Chang, Y. Wen, and H. Hu, The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is effective in elderly adults over 75 years old-Taiwan's PPV vaccination program, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.33, p.21841308, 2015.

J. C. Hageman, T. M. Uyeki, J. S. Francis, D. B. Jernigan, and J. G. Wheeler, Severe communityacquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003-04 influenza season, Emerging infectious diseases, vol.12, p.16707043, 2006.

L. Finelli, A. Fiore, R. Dhara, L. Brammer, and D. K. Shay, Influenza-associated pediatric mortality in the United States: increase of Staphylococcus aureus coinfection, Pediatrics, vol.122, p.18829805, 2008.

C. Reed, A. J. Kallen, M. Patton, K. E. Arnold, and M. M. Farley, Infection With Community-Onset Staphylococcus aureus and Influenza Virus in Hospitalized Children, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.28, p.19478685, 2009.

S. D. Kobayashi, R. J. Olsen, R. A. Lacasse, D. Safronetz, and M. Ashraf, Seasonal H3N2 influenza A virus fails to enhance Staphylococcus aureus co-infection in a non-human primate respiratory tract infection model, Virulence, vol.4, p.24104465, 2013.

R. H. Michaels, R. L. Myerowitz, and R. Klaw, Potentiation of experimental meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae by influenza A virus, The Journal of infectious diseases, vol.135, p.300760, 1977.

L. O. Bakaletz, T. M. Hoepf, T. F. Demaria, and D. J. Lim, The Effect of Antecedent Influenza A Virus Infection on the Adherence of Hemophilus Influenzae to, Chinchilla Tracheal Epithelium. Am~Otalaryngol, vol.9, pp.127-134, 1988.

T. Francis, D. Torregrosa, and M. V. , Combined infection of mice with H. Influenzae and influenza virus by the intranasal route, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.76, pp.70-77, 1945.

R. C. Read, L. Goodwin, M. A. Parsons, P. Silcocks, and E. B. Kaczmarski, Coinfection with influenza B virus does not affect association of Neisseria meningitidis with human nasopharyngeal mucosa in organ culture, Infection and immunity, vol.67, p.10338524, 1999.

K. A. Cartwright, D. M. Jones, A. J. Smith, J. M. Stuart, and E. B. Kaczmarski, Influenza A and meningococcal disease, Lancet, vol.338, pp.554-557, 1991.

J. H. Jacobs, C. Viboud, E. T. Tchetgen, J. Schwartz, and C. Steiner, The Association of Meningococcal Disease with Influenza in the United States, PLoS ONE, vol.9, p.25265409, 1989.

J. F. Brundage, Interactions between influenza and bacterial respiratory pathogens: implications for pandemic preparedness, The Lancet Infectious diseases, vol.6, issue.06, p.16631551, 2006.

P. Makras, S. Alexiou-daniel, A. Antoniadis, and D. Hatzigeorgiou, Outbreak of meningococcal disease after an influenza B epidemic at a Hellenic Air Force recruit training center, Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol.33, pp.48-50, 2001.

M. Florido, R. Pillay, C. M. Gillis, Y. Xia, and S. J. Turner, Epitope-specific CD4+, but not CD8+, Tcell responses induced by recombinant influenza A viruses protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, European Journal of Immunology, vol.45, p.25430701, 2015.

M. Volkert, C. Pierce, F. L. Horsfall, and R. J. Dubos, THE ENHANCING EFFECT OF CONCURRENT INFECTION WITH PNEUMOTROPIC VIRUSES ON PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN MICE, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.86, pp.203-214, 1947.

P. S. Redford, K. D. Mayer-barber, F. W. Mcnab, E. Stavropoulos, and A. Wack, Influenza A virus impairs control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection through a type I interferon receptor-dependent pathway, The Journal of infectious diseases, vol.209, p.23935205, 2014.

S. Walaza, C. Cohen, A. Nanoo, A. L. Cohen, and J. Mcanerney, Excess mortality associated with influenza among tuberculosis deaths in South Africa, PLoS ONE, vol.10, pp.1999-2009, 1999.

W. Oei, H. Nishiura, W. Oei, and H. Nishiura, The Relationship between Tuberculosis and Influenza Death during the Influenza (H1N1) Pandemic from 1918-19, Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol.2012, pp.1-9, 2012.

A. Noymer, The 1918 influenza pandemic hastened the decline of tuberculosis in the United States: An age, period, cohort analysis, Vaccine, vol.29, p.21757102, 2011.

A. Noymer, Testing the influenza-tuberculosis selective mortality hypothesis with Union Army data, Social Science & Medicine, vol.68, pp.1599-1608, 2009.

K. Zürcher, M. Zwahlen, M. Ballif, H. L. Rieder, and M. Egger, Influenza Pandemics and Tuberculosis Mortality in 1889 and 1918: Analysis of Historical Data from Switzerland, PLoS ONE, vol.11, p.27706149, 2016.

S. Roth, S. Whitehead, S. Thamthitiwat, M. Chittaganpitch, and S. A. Maloney, Concurrent influenza virus infection and tuberculosis in patients hospitalized with respiratory illness in Thailand, Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, vol.7, p.22817684, 2013.

J. M. Klonoski, H. R. Hurtig, B. A. Juber, M. J. Schuneman, and T. E. Bickett, Vaccination against the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes prevents death after influenza virus:S. pyogenes super-infection, Vaccine, vol.32, p.25077423, 2014.

S. Okamoto, S. Kawabata, I. Nakagawa, Y. Okuno, and T. Goto, Influenza A Virus-Infected Hosts Boost an Invasive Type of Streptococcus pyogenes Infection in Mice, Journal of Virology, vol.77, p.12634369, 2003.

S. Okamoto, S. Kawabata, Y. Terao, H. Fujitaka, and Y. Okuno, The Streptococcus pyogenes Capsule Is Required for Adhesion of Bacteria to Virus-Infected Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Lethal Bacterial-Viral Superinfection, Infection and Immunity, vol.72, p.15385511, 2004.

M. M. Hafez, K. Abdel-wahab, and D. El-fouhil, Augmented adherence and internalization of group A Streptococcus pyogenes to influenza A virus infected MDCK cells, Journal of Basic Microbiology, vol.50, p.20967785, 2010.

J. Scaber, S. Saeed, C. Ihekweazu, A. Efstratiou, and N. Mccarthy, Group A streptococcal infections during the seasonal influenza outbreak 2010/11 in South East England, Euro Surveill, vol.16, 2011.

D. Tasher, M. Stein, E. Simões, T. Shohat, and M. Bromberg, Invasive bacterial infections in relation to influenza outbreaks, Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol.53, pp.1199-1207, 2006.

E. Tamayo, M. Montes, D. Vicente, E. Pérez-trallero, and C. Welch, Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia in Adults: Clinical Presentation and Molecular Characterization of Isolates, PLoS ONE, vol.11, p.27027618, 2006.

G. Anestad, K. Vainio, and O. Hungnes, Interference between outbreaks of epidemic viruses, Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, vol.39, p.17577842, 2007.

G. Ånestad, Surveillance of respiratory viral infections by rapid immunofluorescence diagnosis, with emphasis on virus interference, Epidemiology and Infection, vol.99, p.523, 2009.

G. Anestad, Surveillance of respiratory viral infections by rapid immunofluorescence diagnosis, with emphasis on virus interference, Epidemiol Infect, vol.99, p.2824225, 1987.

N. Nishimura, H. Nishio, M. J. Lee, and K. Uemura, The clinical features of respiratory syncytial virus: lower respiratory tract infection after upper respiratory tract infection due to influenza virus, Pediatr Int, vol.47, p.16091079, 2005.

L. Van-asten, P. Bijkerk, E. Fanoy, A. Van-ginkel, and A. Suijkerbuijk, Early occurrence of influenza A epidemics coincided with changes in occurrence of other respiratory virus infections, Influenza and other respiratory viruses, vol.10, p.26369646, 2016.

T. Meningher, M. Hindiyeh, L. Regev, H. Sherbany, and E. Mendelson, Relationships between A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection and infections with other respiratory viruses, Influenza and other respiratory viruses, vol.8, p.24698156, 2014.

E. T. Martin, M. P. Fairchok, Z. J. Stednick, J. Kuypers, and J. A. Englund, Epidemiology of multiple respiratory viruses in childcare attendees, The Journal of infectious diseases, vol.207, p.23288925, 2013.

M. Shinjoh, K. Omoe, N. Saito, N. Matsuo, and K. Nerome, In vitro growth profiles of respiratory syncytial virus in the presence of influenza virus, Acta Virol, vol.44, p.10989700, 2000.

A. Linde, M. Rotzen-ostlund, B. Zweygberg-wirgart, S. Rubinova, and M. Brytting, Does viral interference affect spread of influenza?, Euro Surveill, vol.14, 2009.

G. Anestad and S. A. Nordbo, Virus interference. Did rhinoviruses activity hamper the progress of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Norway?, Med Hypotheses, vol.77, p.21975051, 2011.

H. Tanner, E. Boxall, and H. Osman, Respiratory viral infections during the 2009-2010 winter season in Central England, UK: incidence and patterns of multiple virus co-infections. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases: official publication of the, European Society of Clinical Microbiology, vol.31, pp.3001-3006, 2012.

I. M. Mackay, S. B. Lambert, C. E. Faux, K. E. Arden, and M. D. Nissen, Community-wide, contemporaneous circulation of a broad spectrum of human rhinoviruses in healthy Australian preschool-aged children during a 12-month period, The Journal of infectious diseases, vol.207, p.22829638, 2013.

A. J. Easton, P. D. Scott, N. L. Edworthy, B. Meng, and A. C. Marriott, A novel broad-spectrum treatment for respiratory virus infections: influenza-based defective interfering virus provides protection against pneumovirus infection in vivo, Vaccine, vol.29, p.21320545, 2011.

H. Goto, H. Ihira, K. Morishita, M. Tsuchiya, and K. Ohta, Enhanced growth of influenza A virus by coinfection with human parainfluenza virus type 2, Med Microbiol Immunol, vol.205, p.26582554, 2016.