Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) induce latent/quiescent HSV-1 genomes chromatinization through a PML NB/Histone H3.3/H3.3 Chaperone Axis

Abstract : Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) latency establishment is tightly controlled by promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) (or ND10), although their exact contribution is still elusive. A hallmark of HSV-1 latency is the interaction between latent viral genomes and PML NBs, leading to the formation of viral DNA-containing PML NBs (vDCP NBs), and the complete silencing of HSV-1. Using a replication-defective HSV-1-infected human primary fibroblast model reproducing the formation of vDCP NBs, combined with an immuno-FISH approach developed to detect latent/quiescent HSV-1, we show that vDCP NBs contain both histone H3.3 and its chaperone complexes, i.e., DAXX/ATRX and HIRA complex (HIRA, UBN1, CABIN1, and ASF1a). HIRA also co-localizes with vDCP NBs present in trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons from HSV-1-infected wild type mice. ChIP and Re-ChIP show that vDCP NBs-associated latent/quiescent viral genomes are chromatinized almost exclusively with H3.3 modified on its lysine (K) 9 by trimethylation, consistent with an interaction of the H3.3 chaperones with multiple viral loci and with the transcriptional silencing of HSV-1. Only simultaneous inactivation of both H3.3 chaperone complexes has a significant impact on the deposition of H3.3 on viral genomes, suggesting a compensation mechanism. In contrast, the sole depletion of PML significantly impacts the chromatinization of the latent/quiescent viral genomes with H3.3 without any overall replacement with H3.1. vDCP NBs-associated HSV-1 genomes are not definitively silenced since the destabilization of vDCP NBs by ICP0, which is essential for HSV-1 reactivation in vivo, allows the recovery of a transcriptional lytic program and the replication of viral genomes. Consequently, the present study demonstrates a specific chromatin regulation of vDCP NBs-associated latent/quiescent HSV-1 through an H3.3-dependent HSV-1 chromatinization involving the two H3.3 chaperones DAXX/ATRX and HIRA complexes. Additionally, the study reveals that PML NBs are major actors in latent/quiescent HSV-1 H3.3 chromatinization through a PML NB/histone H3.3/H3.3 chaperone axis.
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Camille Cohen, Armelle Corpet, Simon Roubille, Mohamed Maroui, Nolwenn Poccardi, et al.. Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) induce latent/quiescent HSV-1 genomes chromatinization through a PML NB/Histone H3.3/H3.3 Chaperone Axis. PLoS Pathogens, Public Library of Science, 2018, 14 (9), pp.e1007313. ⟨10.1371/journal.ppat.1007313⟩. ⟨inserm-02167220⟩

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