Targeting CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1 Costimulation Differentially Controls Immune Synapses and Function of Human Regulatory and Conventional T-Cells

Abstract : CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1, the three identified ligands for CD80/86, are pivotal positive and negative costimulatory molecules that, among other functions, control T cell motility and formation of immune synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). What remains incompletely understood is how CD28 leads to the activation of effector T cells (Teff) but inhibition of suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs), while CTLA-4 and PD-L1 inhibit Teff function but are crucial for the suppressive function of Tregs. Using alloreactive human T cells and blocking antibodies, we show here by live cell dynamic microscopy that CD28, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 differentially control velocity, motility and immune synapse formation in activated Teff versus Tregs. Selectively antagonizing CD28 costimulation increased Treg dwell time with APCs and induced calcium mobilization which translated in increased Treg suppressive activity, in contrast with the dampening effect on Teff responses. The increase in Treg suppressive activity after CD28 blockade was also confirmed with polyclonal Tregs. Whereas CTLA-4 played a critical role in Teff by reversing TCR-induced STOP signals, it failed to affect motility in Tregs but was essential for formation of the Treg immune synapse. Furthermore, we identified a novel role for PD-L1-CD80 interactions in suppressing motility specifically in Tregs. Thus, our findings reveal that the three identified ligands of CD80/86, CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1, differentially control immune synapse formation and function of the human Teff and Treg cells analyzed here. Individually targeting CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1 might therefore represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to treat immune disorders where effector and regulatory T cell functions need to be differentially targeted.
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Nahzli Dilek, Nicolas Poirier, Philippe Hulin, Flora Coulon, Caroline Mary, et al.. Targeting CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1 Costimulation Differentially Controls Immune Synapses and Function of Human Regulatory and Conventional T-Cells. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2013, 8 (12), pp.e83139. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0083139⟩. ⟨inserm-02165637⟩

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