Human herpesvirus 6 reactivation before engraftment is strongly predictive of graft failure after double umbilical cord blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults

Abstract : Our main objective was to determine new factors associated with engraftment and single-unit predominance after double umbilical cord blood (UCB) allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Engraftment occurred in 78% of cases in this retrospective study including 77 adult patients. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 55 ± 6%, 44 ± 6%, 33 ± 5%, and 23 ± 4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, Human herpesvirus 6 reactivation during aplasia (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64-4.17; p < 0.001), younger recipient age (<53 years) (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.16-3.35; p = 0.012), and lower human leukocyte antigen matching between the two units (3 of 6 or 4 of 6) (HR = 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-3.59; p = 0.013) were the three factors independently associated with graft failure. Also, factors independently predicting the losing UCB unit were younger age of the UCB unit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01; 95% CI: 1-1.02; p = 0.035), lower CD34(+) cell dose contained in the UCB unit (≤ 0.8 × 10(5)/kg) (OR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.05-6.16; p = 0.04), and presence of an ABO incompatibility between the UCB unit and the recipient (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15-5.53; p = 0.02). Thus, Human herpesvirus 6 reactivation during aplasia, lower unit-unit human leukocyte antigen matching, and younger UCB unit age, as new unfavorable predictive factors, may represent new parameters to take into account after double UCB allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in adults. These results need to be confirmed prospectively, as they may influence unit selections and patient outcomes.
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Amandine Le Bourgeois, Myriam Labopin, Thierry Guillaume, Jacques Delaunay, Yohann Foucher, et al.. Human herpesvirus 6 reactivation before engraftment is strongly predictive of graft failure after double umbilical cord blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults. Experimental Hematology, Elsevier, 2014, 42 (11), pp.945-954. ⟨10.1016/j.exphem.2014.07.264⟩. ⟨inserm-02162228⟩

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