Atypical and secondary hemolytic uremic syndromes have a distinct presentation and no common genetic risk factors

Abstract : Secondary hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a heterogeneous group of thrombotic microangiopathies associated with various underlying conditions. Whether it belongs to the spectrum of complement-mediated HUS remains controversial. We analysed the presentation, outcome, and frequency of complement gene rare variants in a cohort of 110 patients with secondary HUS attributed to drugs (29%), autoimmune diseases (24%), infections (17%), malignancies (10%), glomerulopathies (9%), extra-renal organ transplantation (8%), and pancreatitis (3%). The frequency of complement gene rare variants was similar in patients with secondary HUS (5%) and in healthy individuals (6% and 8% in French and European controls, respectively). At diagnosis, 40% of patients required dialysis and 18% had neurological manifestations. Fifty percent of patients received plasmatherapy and 35% were treated with eculizumab. Haematological and complete renal remission was achieved in 80% and 24% of patients, respectively. Thirty-nine percent of patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (stages 3-4) and an additional 37% reached end-stage renal disease. Eleven percent of patients died, most often from complications of the underlying cause of HUS. Only one patient experienced an HUS relapse. Patients treated with eculizumab presented with more severe HUS and were more likely to require dialysis at the time of diagnosis as compared to patients not treated with eculizumab. Rates of hematological remission, chronic kidney disease (stages 3-4), and end-stage renal disease were similar in the two groups. Secondary HUS is an acute nonrelapsing form of HUS, not related to complement dysregulation. The efficacy of eculizumab in this setting is not yet established.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 18, 2019 - 11:18:06 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 25, 2019 - 2:25:00 PM

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Alice Le Clech, Noémie Simon-Tillaux, François Provôt, Yahsou Delmas, Paula Vieira-Martins, et al.. Atypical and secondary hemolytic uremic syndromes have a distinct presentation and no common genetic risk factors. Kidney International, Nature Publishing Group, 2019, 95 (6), pp.1443-1452. ⟨10.1016/j.kint.2019.01.023⟩. ⟨inserm-02158644⟩

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