T. E. Abbink and B. Berkhout, A novel long distance base-pairing interaction in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA occludes the Gag start codon, J. Biol. Chem, vol.278, pp.11601-11611, 2003.

C. S. Adamson and E. O. Freed, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly, release, and maturation, Adv. Pharmacol, vol.55, pp.347-387, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/s1054-3589(07)55010-6

A. Aldovini and R. A. Young, Mutations of RNA and protein sequences involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging result in production of noninfectious virus, J. Virol, vol.64, pp.1920-1926, 1990.

B. Allain, M. Lapadat-tapolsky, C. Berlioz, and J. L. Darlix, Transactivation of the minus-strand DNA transfer by nucleocapsid protein during reverse transcription of the retroviral genome, EMBO J, vol.13, pp.973-981, 1994.

B. Allain, J. B. Rascle, H. De-rocquigny, B. Roques, and J. L. Darlix, CIS elements and trans-acting factors required for minus strand DNA transfer during reverse transcription of the genomic RNA of murine leukemia virus, J. Mol. Biol, vol.277, pp.225-235, 1998.

G. K. Amarasinghe, R. N. De-guzman, R. B. Turner, K. J. Chancellor, Z. R. Wu et al., NMR structure of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein bound to stemloop SL2 of the psi-RNA packaging signal. Implications for genome recognition, J. Mol. Biol, vol.301, pp.491-511, 2000.

G. K. Amarasinghe, R. N. De-guzman, R. B. Turner, and M. F. Summers, NMR structure of stem-loop SL2 of the HIV-1 psi RNA packaging signal reveals a novel A-U-A base-triple platform, J. Mol. Biol, vol.299, pp.145-156, 2000.

A. Apolloni, C. W. Hooker, J. Mak, and D. Harrich, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease regulation of tat activity is essential for efficient reverse transcription and replication, J. Virol, vol.77, pp.9912-9921, 2003.

V. Arfi, L. Riviere, L. Jarrosson-wuilleme, C. Goujon, D. Rigal et al., Characterization of the early steps of infection of primary blood monocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1, J. Virol, vol.82, pp.6557-6565, 2008.

N. Arhel, Revisiting HIV-1 uncoating, Retrovirology, vol.7, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02142365

J. Attal, M. C. Theron, F. Taboit, M. Cajero-juarez, G. Kann et al., The RU5 ('R') region from human leukaemia viruses (HTLV-1) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-like sequence, FEBS Lett, vol.392, pp.220-224, 1996.

S. Auxilien, G. Keith, S. F. Le-grice, and J. L. Darlix, Role of post-transcriptional modifications of primer tRNA(Lys, 3) in the fidelity and efficacy of plus strand DNA transfer during HIV-1 reverse transcription, J. Biol. Chem, vol.274, pp.4412-4420, 1999.

S. V. Avilov, C. Boudier, M. Gottikh, J. L. Darlix, and Y. Mely, Characterization of the inhibition mechanism of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein chaperone activities by methylated oligoribonucleotides, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.56, pp.1010-1018, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00667403

J. Azoulay, J. P. Clamme, J. L. Darlix, B. P. Roques, and Y. Mely, Destabilization of the HIV-1 complementary sequence of TAR by the nucleocapsid protein through activation of conformational fluctuations, J. Mol. Biol, vol.326, pp.691-700, 2003.

D. Baltimore, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of RNA tumour viruses, Nature, vol.226, pp.1209-1211, 1970.

L. Balvay, M. Lopez-lastra, B. Sargueil, J. L. Darlix, and T. Ohlmann, Translational control of retroviruses, Nat. Rev, vol.5, pp.128-140, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00136396

C. Bampi, A. Bibillo, M. Wendeler, G. Divita, R. J. Gorelick et al., Nucleotide excision repair and template-independent addition by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in the presence of nucleocapsid protein, J. Biol. Chem, vol.281, pp.11736-11743, 2006.

C. Bampi, S. Jacquenet, D. Lener, D. Decimo, and J. L. Darlix, The chaperoning and assistance roles of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in proviral DNA synthesis and maintenance, Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol, vol.36, pp.1668-1686, 2004.

C. Barat, V. Lullien, O. Schatz, G. Keith, M. T. Nugeyre et al., HIV-1 reverse transcriptase specifically interacts with the anticodon domain of its cognate primer tRNA, EMBO J, vol.8, pp.3279-3285, 1989.

G. Barbaro, A. Scozzafava, A. Mastrolorenzo, and C. T. Supuran, Highly active antiretroviral therapy: current state of the art, new agents and their pharmacological interactions useful for improving therapeutic outcome, Curr. Pharm. Des, vol.11, pp.1805-1843, 2005.

J. D. Barbour and R. M. Grant, The role of viral fitness in HIV pathogenesis, Curr. HIV/AIDS Rep, vol.2, pp.29-34, 2005.

J. Batisse, S. Guerrero, S. Bernacchi, D. Sleiman, C. Gabus et al., The role of Vif oligomerization and RNA chaperone activity in HIV-1 replication, Virus Res, vol.169, pp.361-376, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00839154

F. Baudin, R. Marquet, C. Isel, J. L. Darlix, B. Ehresmann et al., Functional sites in the 5 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA form defined structural domains, J. Mol. Biol, vol.229, pp.382-397, 1993.

A. Bazzi, L. Zargarian, F. Chaminade, C. Boudier, H. De-rocquigny et al., Structural insights into the cTAR DNA recognition by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: role of sugar deoxyriboses in the binding polarity of NC, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.39, pp.3903-3916, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02119034

H. Beltz, J. Azoulay, S. Bernacchi, J. P. Clamme, D. Ficheux et al., Impact of the terminal bulges of HIV-1 cTAR DNA on its stability and the destabilizing activity of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7, J. Mol. Biol, vol.328, pp.95-108, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314256

H. Beltz, C. Clauss, E. Piemont, D. Ficheux, R. J. Gorelick et al., Structural determinants of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein for cTAR DNA binding and destabilization, and correlation with inhibition of self-primed DNA synthesis, J. Mol. Biol, vol.348, pp.1113-1126, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314252

J. M. Berg, Potential metal-binding domains in nucleic acid binding proteins, Science, vol.232, pp.485-487, 1986.

B. Berkhout, Structure and function of the human immunodeficiency virus leader RNA, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol, vol.54, pp.1-34, 1996.

C. Berlioz and J. L. Darlix, An internal ribosomal entry mechanism promotes translation of murine leukemia virus gag polyprotein precursors, J. Virol, vol.69, pp.2214-2222, 1995.

C. Berlioz, C. Torrent, and J. L. Darlix, An internal ribosomal entry signal in the rat VL30 region of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus leader and its use in dicistronic retroviral vectors, J. Virol, vol.69, pp.6400-6407, 1995.

S. Bernacchi, S. Freisz, C. Maechling, B. Spiess, R. Marquet et al., Aminoglycoside binding to the HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site: thermodynamics and effect on the kissing-loop to duplex conversion, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.35, pp.7128-7139, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00259927

S. Bernacchi, S. Stoylov, E. Piemont, D. Ficheux, B. P. Roques et al., HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein activates transient melting of least stable parts of the secondary structure of TAR and its complementary sequence, J. Mol. Biol, vol.317, pp.385-399, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314258

J. W. Bess, P. J. Powell, H. J. Issaq, L. J. Schumack, M. K. Grimes et al., Tightly bound zinc in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human T-cell leukemia virus type I, and other retroviruses, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.840-847, 1992.

J. M. Bishop, Oncogenes and proto-oncogenes, Hosp. Pract. (Off. Ed.), vol.18, pp.67-74, 1983.

G. Bocharov, N. J. Ford, J. Edwards, T. Breinig, S. Wain-hobson et al., A genetic-algorithm approach to simulating human immunodeficiency virus evolution reveals the strong impact of multiply infected cells and recombination, J. Gen. Virol, vol.86, pp.3109-3118, 2005.

C. Boudier, N. Humbert, F. Chaminade, Y. Y. Chen, H. De-rocquigny et al., Dynamic interactions of the HIV-1 Tat with nucleic acids are critical for Tat activity in reverse transcription, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.42, pp.1065-1078, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00942758

C. Boudier, R. Storchak, K. K. Sharma, P. Didier, A. Follenius-wund et al., The mechanism of HIV-1 Tat-directed nucleic acid annealing supports its role in reverse transcription, J. Mol. Biol, vol.400, pp.487-501, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00493336

S. Bourbigot, N. Ramalanjaona, C. Boudier, G. F. Salgado, B. P. Roques et al., How the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein binds and destabilises the (?)primer binding site during reverse transcription, J. Mol. Biol, vol.383, pp.1112-1128, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00339367

A. Brasey, M. Lopez-lastra, T. Ohlmann, N. Beerens, B. Berkhout et al., The leader of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry segment that is active during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, J. Virol, vol.77, pp.3939-3949, 2003.

B. G. Brenner, D. Turner, and M. A. Wainberg, HIV-1 drug resistance: can we overcome? Expert Opin, Biol. Ther, vol.2, pp.751-761, 2002.

S. Breuer, M. W. Chang, J. Y. Yuan, and B. E. Torbett, Identification of HIV-1 inhibitors targeting the nucleocapsid protein, J. Med. Chem, vol.55, pp.4968-4977, 2012.

J. S. Brugge and R. L. Erikson, Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus, Nature, vol.269, pp.346-348, 1977.

C. B. Buck, X. Shen, M. A. Egan, T. C. Pierson, C. M. Walker et al., The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene encodes an internal ribosome entry site, J. Virol, vol.75, pp.181-191, 2001.

J. S. Buckman, W. J. Bosche, and R. J. Gorelick, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid Zn(2+) fingers are required for efficient reverse transcription, initial integration processes, and protection of newly synthesized viral DNA, J. Virol, vol.77, pp.1469-1480, 2003.

C. G. Burd and G. Dreyfuss, Conserved structures and diversity of functions of RNA-binding proteins, Science, vol.265, pp.615-621, 1994.

M. T. Burniston, A. Cimarelli, J. Colgan, S. P. Curtis, and J. Luban, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag polyprotein multimerization requires the nucleocapsid domain and RNA and is promoted by the capsid-dimer interface and the basic region of matrix protein, J. Virol, vol.73, pp.8527-8540, 1999.

M. Butsch and K. Boris-lawrie, Translation is not required to generate virion precursor RNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells, J. Virol, vol.74, pp.11531-11537, 2000.

M. Butsch and K. Boris-lawrie, Destiny of unspliced retroviral RNA: ribosome and/or virion?, J. Virol, vol.76, pp.3089-3094, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/jvi.76.7.3089-3094.2002

URL : https://jvi.asm.org/content/76/7/3089.full.pdf

S. Carteau, S. C. Batson, L. Poljak, J. F. Mouscadet, H. De-rocquigny et al., Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein specifically stimulates Mg 2+ -dependent DNA integration in vitro, J. Virol, vol.71, pp.6225-6229, 1997.

S. Carteau, R. J. Gorelick, and F. D. Bushman, Coupled integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA ends by purified integrase in vitro: stimulation by the viral nucleocapsid protein, J. Virol, vol.73, pp.6670-6679, 1999.

J. R. Casas-finet, N. I. Jhon, and A. H. Maki, p10, a low molecular weight singlestranded nucleic acid binding protein of murine leukemia retroviruses, shows stacking interactions of its single tryptophan residue with nucleotide bases, Biochemistry, vol.27, pp.1172-1178, 1988.

M. R. Chance, I. Sagi, M. D. Wirt, S. M. Frisbie, E. Scheuring et al., Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of a retrovirus: equine infectious anemia virus cysteine arrays are coordinated to zinc, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.89, pp.10041-10045, 1992.

C. K. Chang, Y. L. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, F. A. Chao, M. C. Wu et al., Multiple nucleic acid binding sites and intrinsic disorder of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: implications for ribonucleocapsid protein packaging, J. Virol, vol.83, pp.2255-2264, 2009.

C. K. Chang, S. C. Sue, T. H. Yu, C. M. Hsieh, C. K. Tsai et al., Modular organization of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein, J. Biomed. Sci, vol.13, pp.59-72, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s11373-005-9035-9

URL : https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11373-005-9035-9.pdf

M. Chen, C. F. Garon, and T. S. Papas, Native ribonucleoprotein is an efficient transcriptional complex of avian myeloblastosis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.77, pp.1296-1300, 1980.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.77.3.1296

URL : http://www.pnas.org/content/77/3/1296.full.pdf

Y. Cheng, T. Legall, C. J. Oldfield, J. P. Mueller, Y. Y. Van et al., Rational drug design via intrinsically disordered protein, Trends Biotechnol, vol.24, pp.435-442, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.07.005

A. Cimarelli and J. L. Darlix, Assembling the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Cell. Mol. Life Sci, vol.59, pp.1166-1184, 2002.

A. Cimarelli, S. Sandin, S. Hoglund, and J. Luban, Basic residues in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid promote virion assembly via interaction with RNA, J. Virol, vol.74, pp.3046-3057, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/jvi.74.7.3046-3057.2000

URL : https://jvi.asm.org/content/jvi/74/7/3046.full.pdf

J. Clever, C. Sassetti, and T. G. Parslow, RNA secondary structure and binding sites for gag gene products in the 5 packaging signal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, J. Virol, vol.69, pp.2101-2109, 1995.

J. L. Clever, D. Mirandar, and T. G. Parslow, RNA structure and packaging signals in the 5 leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome, J. Virol, vol.76, pp.12381-12387, 2002.

J. L. Clever, R. A. Taplitz, M. A. Lochrie, B. Polisky, and T. G. Parslow, A heterologous, high-affinity RNA ligand for human immunodeficiency virus Gag protein has RNA packaging activity, J. Virol, vol.74, pp.541-546, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/jvi.74.1.541-546.2000

URL : https://jvi.asm.org/content/74/1/541.full.pdf

J. M. Coffin, HIV population dynamics in vivo: implications for genetic variation, pathogenesis, and therapy, Science, vol.267, pp.483-489, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.7824947

T. D. Copeland, M. A. Morgan, and S. Oroszlan, Complete amino acid sequence of the nucleic acid-binding protein of bovine leukemia virus, FEBS Lett, vol.156, pp.37-40, 1983.

T. D. Copeland, S. Oroszlan, V. S. Kalyanaraman, M. G. Sarngadharan, and R. C. Gallo, Complete amino acid sequence of human T-cell leukemia virus structural protein p15, FEBS Lett, vol.162, pp.390-395, 1983.

F. Cornille, Y. Mely, D. Ficheux, I. Savignol, D. Gerard et al., Solid phase synthesis of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukaemia virus and related "zinc-fingers" in free SH forms. Influence of zinc chelation on structural and biochemical properties, Int. J. Pept. Protein Res, vol.36, pp.551-558, 1990.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314278

G. Cristofari and J. L. Darlix, The ubiquitous nature of RNA chaperone proteins, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol, vol.72, pp.223-268, 2002.

G. Cristofari, R. Ivanyi-nagy, C. Gabus, S. Boulant, J. P. Lavergne et al., The hepatitis C virus Core protein is a potent nucleic acid chaperone that directs dimerization of the viral (+) strand RNA in vitro, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.32, pp.2623-2631, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00313688

M. Cruceanu, R. J. Gorelick, K. Musier-forsyth, I. Rouzina, and M. C. Williams, Rapid kinetics of protein-nucleic acid interaction is a major component of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein's nucleic acid chaperone function, J. Mol. Biol, vol.363, pp.867-877, 2006.

M. Cruceanu, M. A. Urbaneja, C. V. Hixson, D. G. Johnson, S. A. Datta et al., Nucleic acid binding and chaperone properties of HIV-1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.34, pp.593-605, 2006.

P. Csermely, V. Agoston, and S. Pongor, The efficiency of multi-target drugs: the network approach might help drug design, Trends Pharmacol. Sci, vol.26, pp.178-182, 2005.

V. D'souza and M. F. Summers, Structural basis for packaging the dimeric genome of Moloney murine leukaemia virus, Nature, vol.431, pp.586-590, 2004.

V. D'souza and M. F. Summers, How retroviruses select their genomes, Nat. Rev, vol.3, pp.643-655, 2005.

J. Dannull, A. Surovoy, G. Jung, and K. Moelling, Specific binding of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to PSI RNA in vitro requires N-terminal zinc finger and flanking basic amino acid residues, EMBO J, vol.13, pp.1525-1533, 1994.

J. L. Darlix, G. Cristofari, M. Rau, C. Pechoux, L. Berthoux et al., Nucleocapsid protein of human immunodeficiency virus as a model protein with chaperoning functions and as a target for antiviral drugs, Adv. Pharmacol, vol.48, pp.345-372, 2000.

J. L. Darlix, C. Gabus, M. T. Nugeyre, F. Clavel, and F. Barre-sinoussi, Cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in the RNA dimerization of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, J. Mol. Biol, vol.216, pp.689-699, 1990.

J. L. Darlix, J. L. Garrido, N. Morellet, Y. Mely, and H. De-rocquigny, Properties, functions, and drug targeting of the multifunctional nucleocapsid protein of the human immunodeficiency virus, Adv. Pharmacol, vol.55, pp.299-346, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00667232

J. L. Darlix, J. Godet, R. Ivanyi-nagy, P. Fosse, O. Mauffret et al., Flexible nature and specific functions of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, J. Mol. Biol, vol.410, pp.565-581, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00666974

J. L. Darlix, M. Lapadat-tapolsky, H. De-rocquigny, and B. P. Roques, First glimpses at structure-function relationships of the nucleocapsid protein of retroviruses, J. Mol. Biol, vol.254, pp.523-537, 1995.

J. L. Darlix and P. F. Spahr, Binding sites of viral protein P19 onto Rous sarcoma virus RNA and possible controls of viral functions, J. Mol. Biol, vol.160, pp.147-161, 1982.

J. L. Darlix and P. F. Spahr, Isolation, characterization, genome structure of a Roussarcoma virus derivative defective in replication and RNA packaging, Experientia, vol.41, pp.797-807, 1985.

J. L. Darlix, A. Vincent, C. Gabus, H. De-rocquigny, and B. Roques, Trans-activation of the 5 to 3 viral DNA strand transfer by nucleocapsid protein during reverse transcription of HIV1 RNA, C.R. Acad. Sci. III, vol.316, pp.763-771, 1993.

K. Das and E. Arnold, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and antiviral drug resistance, Part 1, Curr. Opin. Virol, vol.3, pp.111-118, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.coviro.2013.03.012

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4097814?pdf=render

K. Das and E. Arnold, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and antiviral drug resistance, Part 2, Curr. Opin. Virol, vol.3, pp.119-128, 2013.

J. Davis, M. Scherer, W. P. Tsai, and C. Long, Low-molecular-weight Rauscher leukemia virus protein with preferential binding for single-stranded RNA and DNA, J. Virol, vol.18, pp.709-718, 1976.

N. L. Davis and R. R. Rueckert, Properties of a ribonucleoprotein particle isolated from Nonidet P-40-treated Rous sarcoma virus, J. Virol, vol.10, pp.1010-1020, 1972.

R. N. De-guzman, Z. R. Wu, C. C. Stalling, L. Pappalardo, P. N. Borer et al., Structure of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein bound to the SL3 psi-RNA recognition element, Science, vol.279, pp.384-388, 1998.

H. De-rocquigny, D. Ficheux, C. Gabus, M. C. Fournie-zaluski, J. L. Darlix et al., First large scale chemical synthesis of the 72 amino acid HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 in an active form, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.180, pp.1010-1018, 1991.

H. De-rocquigny, C. Gabus, A. Vincent, M. C. Fournie-zaluski, B. Roques et al., Viral RNA annealing activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein require only peptide domains outside the zinc fingers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.89, pp.6472-6476, 1992.

H. De-rocquigny, P. Petitjean, V. Tanchou, D. Decimo, L. Drouot et al., The zinc fingers of HIV nucleocapsid protein NCp7 direct interactions with the viral regulatory protein Vpr, J. Biol. Chem, vol.272, pp.30753-30759, 1997.

H. De-rocquigny, V. Shvadchak, S. Avilov, C. Z. Dong, U. Dietrich et al., Targeting the viral nucleocapsid protein in anti-HIV-1 therapy, Mini Rev. Med. Chem, vol.8, pp.24-35, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00246512

C. Deffaud and J. L. Darlix, Characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment in the 5 leader of murine leukemia virus env RNA, J. Virol, vol.74, pp.846-850, 2000.

H. Demene, C. Z. Dong, M. Ottmann, M. C. Rouyez, N. Jullian et al., , 1994.

, H NMR structure and biological studies of the His23 ? Cys mutant nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1 indicate that the conformation of the first zinc finger is critical for virus infectivity, Biochemistry, vol.33, pp.11707-11716

C. Dickson, R. Eisenman, H. Fan, E. Hunter, and N. Reich, Protein biosynthesis and assembly, RNA Tumor Viruses, pp.513-648, 1985.

J. Dietz, J. Koch, A. Kaur, C. Raja, S. Stein et al., Inhibition of HIV-1 by a peptide ligand of the genomic RNA packaging signal Psi, ChemMedChem, vol.3, pp.749-755, 2008.

C. Z. Dong, H. De-rocquigny, E. Remy, S. Mellac, M. C. Fournie-zaluski et al., Synthesis and biological activities of fluorescent acridine-containing HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins for investigation of nucleic acid-NCp7 interactions, J. Pept. Res, vol.50, pp.269-278, 1997.

T. Dorfman, J. Luban, S. P. Goff, W. A. Haseltine, and H. G. Gottlinger, Mapping of functionally important residues of a cysteine-histidine box in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein, J. Virol, vol.67, pp.6159-6169, 1993.

N. Dorman and A. Lever, Comparison of viral genomic RNA sorting mechanisms in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and Moloney murine leukemia virus, J. Virol, vol.74, pp.11413-11417, 2000.

S. Druillennec, A. Caneparo, H. De-rocquigny, and B. P. Roques, Evidence of interactions between the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 and the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, J. Biol. Chem, vol.274, pp.11283-11288, 1999.

S. Druillennec, C. Z. Dong, S. Escaich, N. Gresh, A. Bousseau et al., A mimic of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein impairs reverse transcription and displays antiviral activity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.96, pp.4886-4891, 1999.

A. K. Dunker, J. D. Lawson, C. J. Brown, R. M. Williams, P. Romero et al., Intrinsically disordered protein. J. Mol. Graph. Model, vol.19, pp.26-59, 2001.

H. Echols, Nucleoprotein structures initiating DNA replication, transcription, and site-specific recombination, J. Biol. Chem, vol.265, pp.14697-14700, 1990.
DOI : 10.1101/sqb.1984.049.01.082

V. Ellermann and O. Bang, Experimentelle Leukämie bei hühnern. Zentralbl. Backteriol, vol.46, pp.595-609, 1908.

E. Ennifar, J. C. Paillart, A. Bodlenner, P. Walter, J. M. Weibel et al., Targeting the dimerization initiation site of HIV-1 RNA with aminoglycosides: from crystal to cell, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.34, pp.2328-2339, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00094052

V. Evdokimova, L. P. Ovchinnikov, and P. H. Sorensen, Y-box binding protein 1 -providing a new angle on translational regulation, Cell Cycle, vol.5, pp.1143-1147, 2006.

Y. X. Feng, T. D. Copeland, L. E. Henderson, R. J. Gorelick, W. J. Bosche et al., HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein induces "maturation" of dimeric retroviral RNA in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.93, pp.7577-7581, 1996.

E. O. Freed and A. J. Mouland, The cell biology of HIV-1 and other retroviruses, Retrovirology, vol.3, p.77, 2006.

S. Freisz, K. Lang, R. Micura, P. Dumas, and E. Ennifar, Binding of aminoglycoside antibiotics to the duplex form of the HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization initiation site, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, vol.47, pp.4110-4113, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00341699

W. Fu, R. J. Gorelick, and A. Rein, Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dimeric RNA from wild-type and protease-defective virions, J. Virol, vol.68, pp.5013-5018, 1994.

C. Gabus, S. Auxilien, C. Pechoux, D. Dormont, W. Swietnicki et al., The prion protein has DNA strand transfer properties similar to retroviral nucleocapsid protein, J. Mol. Biol, vol.307, pp.1011-1021, 2001.

C. Gabus, E. Derrington, P. Leblanc, J. Chnaiderman, D. Dormont et al., The prion protein has RNA binding and chaperoning properties characteristic of nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of HIV-1, J. Biol. Chem, vol.276, pp.19301-19309, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02132253

C. Gabus, D. Ficheux, M. Rau, G. Keith, S. Sandmeyer et al., The yeast Ty3 retrotransposon contains a 5 -3 bipartite primer-binding site and encodes nucleocapsid protein NCp9 functionally homologous to HIV-1 NCp7, EMBO J, vol.17, pp.4873-4880, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314261

R. Galetto, V. Giacomoni, M. Veron, and M. Negroni, Dissection of a circumscribed recombination hot spot in HIV-1 after a single infectious cycle, J. Biol. Chem, vol.281, pp.2711-2720, 2006.

R. Galetto and M. Negroni, Mechanistic features of recombination in HIV, AIDS Rev, vol.7, pp.92-102, 2005.

J. E. Gallant, P. Z. Gerondelis, M. A. Wainberg, N. S. Shulman, R. H. Haubrich et al., Nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a clinical review of antiretroviral resistance, Antivir. Ther, vol.8, pp.489-506, 2003.

K. Gao, R. J. Gorelick, D. G. Johnson, and F. Bushman, Cofactors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cDNA integration in vitro, J. Virol, vol.77, pp.1598-1603, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/jvi.77.2.1598-1603.2003

URL : https://jvi.asm.org/content/77/2/1598.full.pdf

D. J. Garfinkel, J. D. Boeke, and G. R. Fink, Ty element transposition: reverse transcriptase and virus-like particles, Cell, vol.42, pp.507-517, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(85)90108-4

H. R. Gelderblom, E. H. Hausmann, M. Ozel, G. Pauli, and M. A. Koch, Fine structure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and immunolocalization of structural proteins, Virology, vol.156, pp.171-176, 1987.

J. Godet, C. Boudier, N. Humbert, R. Ivanyi-nagy, J. L. Darlix et al., Comparative nucleic acid chaperone properties of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 and Tat protein of HIV-1, Virus Res, vol.169, pp.349-360, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00783447

J. Godet, H. De-rocquigny, C. Raja, N. Glasser, D. Ficheux et al., During the early phase of HIV-1 DNA synthesis, nucleocapsid protein directs hybridization of the TAR complementary sequences via the ends of their doublestranded stem, J. Mol. Biol, vol.356, pp.1180-1192, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00129870

J. Godet and Y. Mely, Biophysical studies of the nucleic acid chaperone properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, RNA Biol, vol.7, pp.687-699, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00658927

F. D. Goebel, R. Hemmer, J. C. Schmit, J. R. Bogner, E. De-clercq et al., Phase I/II dose escalation and randomized withdrawal study with add-on azodicarbonamide in patients failing on current antiretroviral therapy, AIDS, vol.15, pp.33-45, 2001.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200101050-00007

V. Goldschmidt, L. M. Miller-jenkins, H. De-rocquigny, J. Darlix, and Y. Mély, The nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1 as a promising therapeutic target for antiviral drugs, HIV Ther, vol.4, pp.179-198, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00508157

R. J. Gorelick, D. J. Chabot, D. E. Ott, T. D. Gagliardi, A. Rein et al., Genetic analysis of the zinc finger in the Moloney murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid domain: replacement of zinc-coordinating residues with other zinc-coordinating residues yields noninfectious particles containing genomic RNA, J. Virol, vol.70, pp.2593-2597, 1996.

R. J. Gorelick, W. Fu, T. D. Gagliardi, W. J. Bosche, A. Rein et al., Characterization of the block in replication of nucleocapsid protein zinc finger mutants from moloney murine leukemia virus, J. Virol, vol.73, pp.8185-8195, 1999.

R. J. Gorelick, L. E. Henderson, J. P. Hanser, and A. Rein, Point mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus that fail to package viral RNA: evidence for specific RNA recognition by a "zinc finger-like" protein sequence, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.85, pp.8420-8424, 1988.

R. J. Gorelick, S. M. Nigida, J. W. Bess, L. O. Arthur, L. E. Henderson et al., Noninfectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants deficient in genomic RNA, J. Virol, vol.64, pp.3207-3211, 1990.

H. G. Gottlinger, The HIV-1 assembly machine, AIDS, pp.13-20, 2001.

N. Goudreau, O. Hucke, A. M. Faucher, C. Grand-maitre, O. Lepage et al., Discovery and structural characterization of a new inhibitor series of HIV-1 nucleocapsid function: NMR solution structure determination of a ternary complex involving a 2:1 inhibitor/NC stoichiometry, J. Mol. Biol, vol.425, pp.1982-1998, 2013.

S. D. Griffin, J. F. Allen, and A. M. Lever, The major human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) packaging signal is present on all HIV-2 RNA species: cotranslational RNA encapsidation and limitation of Gag protein confer specificity, J. Virol, vol.75, pp.12058-12069, 2001.

B. Grigorov, F. Arcanger, P. Roingeard, J. L. Darlix, and D. Muriaux, Assembly of infectious HIV-1 in human epithelial and T-lymphoblastic cell lines, J. Mol. Biol, vol.359, pp.848-862, 2006.

B. Grigorov, A. Bocquin, C. Gabus, S. Avilov, Y. Mely et al., Identification of a methylated oligoribonucleotide as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcription complex, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.39, pp.5586-5596, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00666986

B. Grigorov, D. Decimo, F. Smagulova, C. Pechoux, M. Mougel et al., Intracellular HIV-1 Gag localization is impaired by mutations in the nucleocapsid zinc fingers, Retrovirology, vol.4, p.54, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00258941

D. Grohmann, J. Godet, Y. Mely, J. L. Darlix, and T. Restle, HIV-1 nucleocapsid traps reverse transcriptase on nucleic acid substrates, Biochemistry, vol.47, pp.12230-12240, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00339361

J. Guo, L. E. Henderson, J. Bess, B. Kane, and J. G. Levin, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein promotes efficient strand transfer and specific viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting TAR-dependent self-priming from minus-strand strong-stop DNA, J. Virol, vol.71, pp.5178-5188, 1997.

E. Hamard-peron and D. Muriaux, Retroviral matrix and lipids, the intimate interaction, Retrovirology, vol.8, p.15, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00663858

H. Hanafusa, Rapid transformation of cells by Rous sarcoma virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.63, pp.318-325, 1969.

L. J. Hansen, D. L. Chalker, and S. B. Sandmeyer, Ty3, a yeast retrotransposon associated with tRNA genes, has homology to animal retroviruses, Mol. Cell. Biol, vol.8, pp.5245-5256, 1988.

T. Hayashi, T. Shioda, Y. Iwakura, and H. Shibuta, RNA packaging signal of humanimmunodeficiency-virus type-1, Virology, vol.188, pp.590-599, 1992.

S. L. Heilman-miller, T. Y. Wu, and J. G. Levin, Alteration of nucleic acid structure and stability modulates the efficiency of minus-strand transfer mediated by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, J. Biol. Chem, vol.279, pp.44154-44165, 2004.

L. E. Henderson, R. E. Benveniste, R. Sowder, T. D. Copeland, A. M. Schultz et al., Molecular characterization of gag proteins from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVMne), J. Virol, vol.62, pp.2587-2595, 1988.

L. E. Henderson, M. A. Bowers, R. C. Sowder-2nd, S. A. Serabyn, D. G. Johnson et al., Gag proteins of the highly replicative MN strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: posttranslational modifications, proteolytic processings, and complete amino acid sequences, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.1856-1865, 1992.

L. E. Henderson, T. D. Copeland, R. C. Sowder, G. W. Smythers, and S. Oroszlan, Primary structure of the low molecular weight nucleic acid-binding proteins of murine leukemia viruses, J. Biol. Chem, vol.256, pp.8400-8406, 1981.

L. E. Henderson, R. C. Sowder, T. D. Copeland, S. Oroszlan, and R. E. Benveniste, Gag precursors of HIV and SIV are cleaved into six proteins found in the mature virions, J. Med. Primatol, vol.19, pp.411-419, 1990.

X. Heng, S. Kharytonchyk, E. L. Garcia, K. Lu, S. S. Divakaruni et al., Identification of a minimal region of the HIV-1 5 -leader required for RNA dimerization, NC binding, and packaging, J. Mol. Biol, vol.417, pp.224-239, 2012.

S. Henriet, D. Richer, S. Bernacchi, E. Decroly, R. Vigne et al., Cooperative and specific binding of Vif to the 5 region of HIV-1 genomic RNA, J. Mol. Biol, vol.354, pp.55-72, 2005.

C. H. Herbreteau, L. Weill, D. Decimo, D. Prevot, J. L. Darlix et al., HIV-2 genomic RNA contains a novel type of IRES located downstream of its initiation codon, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol, vol.12, pp.1001-1007, 2005.

D. Herschlag, RNA chaperones and the RNA folding problem, J. Biol. Chem, vol.270, pp.20871-20874, 1995.

A. Hizi, L. E. Henderson, T. D. Copeland, R. C. Sowder, C. V. Hixson et al., Characterization of mouse mammary tumor virus gag-pro gene products and the ribosomal frameshift site by protein sequencing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.84, pp.7041-7045, 1987.

V. Housset, H. De-rocquigny, B. P. Roques, and J. L. Darlix, Basic amino acids flanking the zinc finger of Moloney murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein NCp10 are critical for virus infectivity, J. Virol, vol.67, pp.2537-2545, 1993.

L. Houzet, Z. Morichaud, L. Didierlaurent, D. Muriaux, J. L. Darlix et al., Nucleocapsid mutations turn HIV-1 into a DNA-containing virus, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.36, pp.2311-2319, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkn069

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00273826

W. S. Hu, T. Rhodes, Q. Dang, and V. Pathak, Retroviral recombination: review of genetic analyses, Front. Biosci, vol.8, pp.143-155, 2003.
DOI : 10.2741/940

W. S. Hu, T. Rhodes, Q. Dang, and V. Pathak, Retroviral recombination: review of genetic analyses, Front. Biosci, vol.8, pp.143-155, 2003.

W. S. Hu and H. M. Temin, Retroviral recombination and reverse transcription, Science, vol.250, pp.1227-1233, 1990.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1700865

R. J. Huebner and G. J. Todaro, Oncogenes of RNA tumor viruses as determinants of cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.64, pp.1087-1094, 1969.

H. Huthoff and B. Berkhout, Mutations in the TAR hairpin affect the equilibrium between alternative conformations of the HIV-1 leader RNA, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.29, pp.2594-2600, 2001.

H. Huthoff and B. Berkhout, Two alternating structures of the HIV-1 leader RNA, RNA, vol.7, pp.143-157, 2001.

H. Huthoff and B. Berkhout, Multiple secondary structure rearrangements during HIV-1 RNA dimerization, Biochemistry, vol.41, pp.10439-10445, 2002.
DOI : 10.1021/bi025993n

S. Ivanchenko, W. J. Godinez, M. Lampe, H. G. Krausslich, R. Eils et al., Dynamics of HIV-1 assembly and release, PLoS Pathog, vol.5, p.1000652, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000652

URL : https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1000652&type=printable

R. Ivanyi-nagy and J. L. Darlix, Intrinsic disorder in the core proteins of flaviviruses, Protein Pept. Lett, vol.17, pp.1019-1025, 2010.

R. Ivanyi-nagy, L. Davidovic, E. W. Khandjian, and J. L. Darlix, Disordered RNA chaperone proteins: from functions to disease, Cell. Mol. Life Sci, vol.62, pp.1409-1417, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00018-005-5100-9

R. Ivanyi-nagy, Z. Makowska, and J. L. Darlix, Intrinsic flexibility of nucleic acid chaperone proteins from pathogenic RNA viruses, pp.279-306, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118183373.ch10

L. M. Jenkins, J. C. Byrd, T. Hara, P. Srivastava, S. J. Mazur et al., Studies on the mechanism of inactivation of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7 with 2-mercaptobenzamide thioesters, J. Med. Chem, vol.48, pp.2847-2858, 2005.

J. E. Jentoft, L. M. Smith, X. D. Fu, M. Johnson, and J. Leis, Conserved cysteine and histidine residues of the avian myeloblastosis virus nucleocapsid protein are essential for viral replication but are not "zinc-binding fingers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.85, pp.7094-7098, 1988.

N. Jouvenet, P. D. Bieniasz, and S. M. Simon, Imaging the biogenesis of individual HIV-1 virions in live cells, Nature, p.435, 2008.

N. Jouvenet, S. J. Neil, C. Bess, M. C. Johnson, C. A. Virgen et al., Plasma membrane is the site of productive HIV-1 particle assembly, PLoS Biol, vol.4, p.435, 2006.

M. Kameoka, M. Morgan, M. Binette, R. S. Russell, L. Rong et al., The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can promote placement of tRNA primer onto viral RNA and suppress later DNA polymerization in HIV-1 reverse transcription, J. Virol, vol.76, pp.3637-3645, 2002.

M. Kameoka, M. Morgan, M. Binette, R. S. Russell, L. W. Rong et al., The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can promote placement of tRNA primer onto viral RNA and suppress later DNA polymerization in HIV-1 reverse transcription, J. Virol, vol.76, pp.3637-3645, 2002.

R. L. Karpel, L. E. Henderson, and S. Oroszlan, Interactions of retroviral structural proteins with single-stranded nucleic acids, J. Biol. Chem, vol.262, pp.4961-4967, 1987.

R. A. Katz and A. M. Skalka, Generation of diversity in retroviruses, Annu. Rev. Genet, vol.24, pp.409-445, 1990.

D. Kovacs, M. Rakacs, B. Agoston, K. Lenkey, K. Semrad et al., Janus chaperones: assistance of both RNA-and protein-folding by ribosomal proteins, FEBS Lett, vol.583, pp.88-92, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.11.049

G. Krishnamoorthy, B. Roques, J. L. Darlix, and Y. Mely, DNA condensation by the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1: a mechanism ensuring DNA protection, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.31, pp.5425-5432, 2003.

M. Kuciak, C. Gabus, R. Ivanyi-nagy, K. Semrad, R. Storchak et al., The HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat has potent nucleic acid chaperoning activities in vitro, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.36, pp.3389-3400, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00316094

S. B. Kutluay and P. D. Bieniasz, Analysis of the initiating events in HIV-1 particle assembly and genome packaging, PLoS Pathog, vol.6, p.1001200, 2010.

M. Lapadat-tapolsky, H. De-rocquigny, D. Van-gent, B. Roques, R. Plasterk et al., Interactions between HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein and viral DNA may have important functions in the viral life cycle, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.21, pp.831-839, 1993.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/21.8.2024

URL : https://academic.oup.com/nar/article-pdf/21/8/2024/3501162/21-8-2024-s.pdf

M. Lapadat-tapolsky, C. Gabus, M. Rau, and J. L. Darlix, Possible roles of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in the specificity of proviral DNA synthesis and in its variability, J. Mol. Biol, vol.268, pp.250-260, 1997.

M. Lapadat-tapolsky, C. Pernelle, C. Borie, and J. L. Darlix, Analysis of the nucleic acid annealing activities of nucleocapsid protein from HIV-1, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.23, pp.2434-2441, 1995.

L. Cam, E. Coulaud, D. Delain, E. Petitjean, P. Roques et al., Properties and growth mechanism of the ordered aggregation of a model RNA by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: an electron microscopy investigation, Biopolymers, vol.45, pp.217-229, 1998.

B. M. Lee, R. N. De-guzman, B. G. Turner, N. Tjandra, and M. F. Summers, Dynamical behavior of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, J. Mol. Biol, vol.279, pp.633-649, 1998.

D. Lener, V. Tanchou, B. P. Roques, S. F. Le-grice, and J. L. Darlix, Involvement of HIV-I nucleocapsid protein in the recruitment of reverse transcriptase into nucleoprotein complexes formed in vitro, J. Biol. Chem, vol.273, pp.33781-33786, 1998.

A. Lever, H. Gottlinger, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, Identification of a sequence required for efficient packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA into virions, J. Virol, vol.63, pp.4085-4087, 1989.

A. M. Lever, HIV-1 RNA packaging, Adv. Pharmacol, vol.55, pp.1-32, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/s1054-3589(07)55001-5

J. G. Levin, J. Guo, I. Rouzina, and K. Musier-forsyth, Nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: critical role in reverse transcription and molecular mechanism, Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol, vol.80, pp.217-286, 2005.

J. G. Levin and M. J. Rosenak, Synthesis of murine leukemia virus proteins associated with virions assembled in actinomycin D-treated cells: evidence for persistence of viral messenger RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.73, pp.1154-1158, 1976.

S. Longhi, J. Habchi, L. Mamelli, and H. Darbon, Structural disorder within Henipavirus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein, Biophys. J, vol.98, p.256, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.1392

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2009.12.1392

S. Longhi and M. Oglesbee, Structural disorder within the measles virus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein, Protein Pept. Lett, vol.17, pp.961-978, 2010.

M. Lopez-lastra, P. Ramdohr, A. Letelier, M. Vallejos, J. Vera-otarola et al., Translation initiation of viral mRNAs, Rev. Med. Virol, vol.20, pp.177-195, 2010.

M. Lopez-lastra, A. Rivas, and M. I. Barria, Protein synthesis in eukaryotes: the growing biological relevance of cap-independent translation initiation, Biol. Res, vol.38, pp.121-146, 2005.

F. Lori, F. Di-marzo-veronese, A. L. De-vico, P. Lusso, M. S. Reitz et al., Viral DNA carried by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.5067-5074, 1992.

K. Lu, X. Heng, L. Garyu, S. Monti, E. L. Garcia et al., NMR detection of structures in the HIV-1 5 -leader RNA that regulate genome packaging, Science, vol.334, pp.242-245, 2011.

K. Lu, X. Heng, and M. F. Summers, Structural determinants and mechanism of HIV-1 genome packaging, J. Mol. Biol, vol.410, pp.609-633, 2011.

M. S. Mcbride and A. T. Panganiban, The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encapsidation site is a multipartite RNA element composed of functional hairpin structures, J. Virol, vol.70, pp.2963-2973, 1996.

Y. Mely, F. Cornille, M. C. Fournie-zaluski, J. L. Darlix, B. P. Roques et al., Investigation of zinc-binding affinities of Moloney murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein and its related zinc finger and modified peptides, Biopolymers, vol.31, pp.899-906, 1991.

Y. Mely, H. De-rocquigny, N. Morellet, B. P. Roques, and D. Gerad, Zinc binding to the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: a thermodynamic investigation by fluorescence spectroscopy, Biochemistry, vol.35, pp.5175-5182, 1996.

A. L. Meric, M. J. Purtell, and C. C. Levy, Characterization of a p30 fraction from Rauscher leukemia virus which has an associated ATPase activity, J. Biol. Chem, vol.259, pp.12865-12872, 1984.

C. Meric and S. P. Goff, Characterization of Moloney murine leukemia virus mutants with single-amino-acid substitutions in the Cys-His box of the nucleocapsid protein, J. Virol, vol.63, pp.1558-1568, 1989.

C. Meric, E. Gouilloud, and P. F. Spahr, Mutations in Rous sarcoma virus nucleocapsid protein p12 (NC): deletions of Cys-His boxes, J. Virol, vol.62, pp.3328-3333, 1988.

C. Meric and P. F. Spahr, Rous-sarcoma virus nucleic acid-binding protein-p12 is necessary for viral-70S RNA dimer formation and packaging, J. Virol, vol.60, pp.450-459, 1986.

M. A. Mir and A. T. Panganiban, The hantavirus nucleocapsid protein recognizes specific features of the viral RNA panhandle and is altered in conformation upon RNA binding, J. Virol, vol.79, pp.1824-1835, 2005.

G. Mirambeau, S. Lyonnais, D. Coulaud, L. Hameau, S. Lafosse et al., Transmission electron microscopy reveals an optimal HIV-1 nucleocapsid aggregation with single-stranded nucleic acids and the mature HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, J. Mol. Biol, vol.364, pp.496-511, 2006.

G. Mirambeau, S. Lyonnais, and R. J. Gorelick, Features, processing states, and heterologous protein interactions in the modulation of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein function, RNA Biol, vol.7, pp.724-734, 2010.

N. Morellet, H. Demene, V. Teilleux, T. Huynh-dinh, H. De-rocquigny et al., , 1998.

, J. Mol. Biol, vol.283, pp.419-434

N. Morellet, N. Jullian, H. De-rocquigny, B. Maigret, J. L. Darlix et al., Determination of the structure of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by 1 H NMR, EMBO J, vol.11, pp.3059-3065, 1992.

N. Morellet, H. Meudal, S. Bouaziz, and B. P. Roques, Structure of the zinc finger domain encompassing residues 13-51 of the nucleocapsid protein from simian immunodeficiency virus, Biochem. J, vol.393, pp.725-732, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02122534

M. Mori, U. Dietrich, F. Manetti, and M. Botta, Molecular dynamics and DFT study on HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein-7 in complex with viral genome, J. Chem. Inform. Model, vol.50, pp.638-650, 2010.

M. Mori, F. Manetti, and M. Botta, Targeting protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions for anti-HIV therapy, Curr. Pharm. Des, vol.17, pp.3713-3728, 2011.

M. Mori, P. Schult-dietrich, B. Szafarowicz, N. Humbert, F. Debaene et al., Use of virtual screening for discovering antiretroviral compounds interacting with the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, Virus Res, vol.169, pp.377-387, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00783645

M. Mougel, L. Houzet, and J. L. Darlix, When is it time for reverse transcription to start and go? Retrovirology 6, p.24, 2009.

J. Munch, E. Rucker, L. Standker, K. Adermann, C. Goffinet et al., Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV infection, Cell, vol.131, pp.1059-1071, 2007.

D. Muriaux and J. L. Darlix, Properties and functions of the nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly, RNA Biol, vol.7, pp.744-753, 2010.

D. Muriaux, J. Mirro, D. Harvin, and A. Rein, RNA is a structural element in retrovirus particles, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.98, pp.5246-5251, 2001.

K. G. Murti, M. Bondurant, and A. Tereba, Secondary structural features in the 70S RNAs of Moloney murine leukemia and Rous-sarcoma viruses as observed by electron-microscopy, J. Virol, vol.37, pp.411-419, 1981.

R. A. Musah, The HIV-1 nucleocapsid zinc finger protein as a target of antiretroviral therapy, Curr. Top. Med. Chem, vol.4, pp.1605-1622, 2004.

M. Negroni and H. Buc, Mechanisms of retroviral recombination, Annu. Rev. Genet, vol.35, pp.275-302, 2001.

N. Ni, O. A. Nikolaitchik, K. A. Dilley, J. Chen, A. Galli et al., Mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 RNA packaging: efficient trans packaging and selection of RNA copackaging partners, J. Virol, vol.85, pp.7603-7612, 2011.

T. Ohlmann, M. Lopez-lastra, and J. L. Darlix, An internal ribosome entry segment promotes translation of the simian immunodeficiency virus genomic RNA, J. Biol. Chem, vol.275, pp.11899-11906, 2000.

A. Onafuwa-nuga and A. Telesnitsky, The remarkable frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic recombination. Microbiol, Mol. Biol. Rev, vol.73, pp.451-480, 2009.

A. Ono, S. D. Ablan, S. J. Lockett, K. Nagashima, and E. O. Freed, Phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate regulates HIV-1 Gag targeting to the plasma membrane, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.101, pp.14889-14894, 2004.

A. Ono and E. O. Freed, Cell-type-dependent targeting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly to the plasma membrane and the multivesicular body, J. Virol, vol.78, pp.1552-1563, 2004.

D. E. Ott, L. V. Coren, and T. Shatzer, The nucleocapsid region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag assists in the coordination of assembly and Gag processing: role for RNA-Gag binding in the early stages of assembly, J. Virol, vol.83, pp.7718-7727, 2009.

J. Pager, D. Coulaud, and E. Delain, Electron microscopy of the nucleocapsid from disrupted Moloney murine leukemia virus and of associated type VI collagenlike filaments, J. Virol, vol.68, pp.223-232, 1994.

A. Pelchen-matthews, B. Kramer, and M. Marsh, Infectious HIV-1 assembles in late endosomes in primary macrophages, J. Cell Biol, vol.162, pp.443-455, 2003.

J. M. Peloponese, Y. Collette, C. Gregoire, C. Bailly, D. Campese et al., Full peptide synthesis, purification, and characterization of six Tat variants -differences observed between HIV-1 isolates from Africa and other continents, J. Biol. Chem, vol.274, pp.11473-11478, 1999.

L. Poljak, S. M. Batson, D. Ficheux, B. P. Roques, J. L. Darlix et al., Analysis of NCp7-dependent activation of HIV-1 cDNA integration and its conservation among retroviral nucleocapsid proteins, J. Mol. Biol, vol.329, pp.411-421, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00314255

A. C. Prats, V. Housset, G. De-billy, F. Cornille, H. Prats et al., Viral RNA annealing activities of the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus are zinc independent, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.19, pp.3533-3541, 1991.

A. C. Prats, C. Roy, P. A. Wang, M. Erard, V. Housset et al., cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in dimer formation of murine leukemia virus RNA, J. Virol, vol.64, pp.774-783, 1990.

A. C. Prats, L. Sarih, C. Gabus, S. Litvak, G. Keith et al., Small finger protein of avian and murine retroviruses has nucleic acid annealing activity and positions the replication primer tRNA onto genomic RNA, EMBO J, vol.7, pp.1777-1783, 1988.

T. Pugatsch and D. W. Stacey, Identification of a sequence likely to be required for avian retroviral packaging, Virology, vol.128, pp.505-511, 1983.

A. Pustowka, J. Dietz, J. Ferner, M. Baumann, M. Landersz et al., Identification of peptide ligands for target RNA structures derived from the HIV-1 packaging signal psi by screening phage-displayed peptide libraries, ChemBioChem, vol.4, pp.1093-1097, 2003.

C. Raja, J. Ferner, U. Dietrich, S. Avilov, D. Ficheux et al., A tryptophan-rich hexapeptide inhibits nucleic acid destabilization chaperoned by the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, Biochemistry, vol.45, pp.9254-9265, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00129963

S. Ramboarina, N. Srividya, R. A. Atkinson, N. Morellet, B. P. Roques et al., Effects of temperature on the dynamic behaviour of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid NCp7 and its DNA complex, J. Mol. Biol, vol.316, pp.611-627, 2002.

G. Raposo, M. Moore, D. Innes, R. Leijendekker, A. Leigh-brown et al., Human macrophages accumulate HIV-1 particles in MHC II compartments, Traffic, vol.3, pp.718-729, 2002.

A. Rein, S. A. Datta, C. P. Jones, and K. Musier-forsyth, Diverse interactions of retroviral Gag proteins with RNAs, Trends Biochem. Sci, vol.36, pp.373-380, 2011.

A. Rein, L. E. Henderson, and J. G. Levin, Nucleic-acid-chaperone activity of retroviral nucleocapsid proteins: significance for viral replication, Trends Biochem. Sci, vol.23, pp.297-301, 1998.

M. D. Resh, Intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Gag: how Gag interacts with cell membranes and makes viral particles, AIDS Rev, vol.7, pp.84-91, 2005.

W. G. Rice, C. A. Schaeffer, B. Harten, F. Villinger, T. L. South et al., Inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by zinc-ejecting aromatic C-nitroso compounds, Nature, vol.361, pp.473-475, 1993.

W. G. Rice, J. G. Supko, L. Malspeis, R. W. Buckheit, D. Clanton et al., Inhibitors of HIV nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers as candidates for the treatment of AIDS, Science, vol.270, pp.1194-1197, 1995.

P. Rous, A transmissible avian neoplasm:sarcoma for the common fowl, J. Exp. Med, vol.12, pp.696-705, 1910.

L. Rudner, S. Nydegger, L. V. Coren, K. Nagashima, M. Thali et al., Dynamic fluorescent imaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag in live cells by biarsenical labeling, J. Virol, vol.79, pp.4055-4065, 2005.

J. S. Saad, J. Miller, J. Tai, A. Kim, R. H. Ghanam et al., Structural basis for targeting HIV-1 Gag proteins to the plasma membrane for virus assembly, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.103, pp.11364-11369, 2006.

K. Sakaguchi, N. Zambrano, E. T. Baldwin, B. A. Shapiro, J. W. Erickson et al., Identification of a binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.90, pp.5219-5223, 1993.

M. L. Schito, A. Goel, Y. Song, J. K. Inman, R. J. Fattah et al., In vivo antiviral activity of novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid p7 zinc finger inhibitors in a transgenic murine model, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, vol.19, pp.91-101, 2003.

R. Schroeder, A. Barta, and K. Semrad, Strategies for RNA folding and assembly, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.5, pp.908-919, 2004.

A. Sen, C. J. Sherr, and G. J. Todaro, Phosphorylation of murine type-C viral p12 proteins regulates their extent of binding to homologous viral-RNA, Cell, vol.10, pp.489-496, 1977.

K. K. Sharma, H. De-rocquigny, J. L. Darlix, J. P. Lavergne, F. Penin et al., Analysis of the RNA chaperoning activity of the hepatitis C virus core protein on the conserved 3 X region of the viral genome, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.40, pp.2540-2553, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00703423

M. F. Shubsda, A. C. Paoletti, B. S. Hudson, and P. N. Borer, Affinities of packaging domain loops in HIV-1 RNA for the nucleocapsid protein, Biochemistry, vol.41, pp.5276-5282, 2002.

V. Shvadchak, S. Sanglier, S. Rocle, P. Villa, J. Haiech et al., Identification by high throughput screening of small compounds inhibiting the nucleic acid destabilization activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, Biochimie, vol.91, pp.916-923, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00406367

A. Sosic, F. Frecentese, E. Perissutti, L. Sinigaglia, V. Santagada et al., Desig, synthesis and biological evaluation of TAR and cTAR binders as HIV-1 nucleocapsid inhibitors, MedChemComm, vol.4, pp.1388-1393, 2013.

T. L. South, P. R. Blake, R. C. Sowder-3rd, L. O. Arthur, L. E. Henderson et al., The nucleocapsid protein isolated from HIV-1 particles binds zinc and forms retroviral-type zinc fingers, Biochemistry, vol.29, pp.7786-7789, 1990.

S. Spriggs, L. Garyu, R. Connor, and M. F. Summers, Potential intra-and intermolecular interactions involving the unique-5 region of the HIV-1 5 -UTR, Biochemistry, vol.47, pp.13064-13073, 2008.

P. Srivastava, M. Schito, R. J. Fattah, T. Hara, T. Hartman et al., Optimization of unique, uncharged thioesters as inhibitors of HIV replication, Bioorg. Med. Chem, vol.12, pp.6437-6450, 2004.

C. R. Stenbak and M. L. Linial, Role of the C terminus of foamy virus Gag in RNA packaging and Pol expression, J. Virol, vol.78, pp.9423-9430, 2004.

A. G. Stephen, K. M. Worthy, E. Towler, J. A. Mikovits, S. Sei et al., Identification of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: nucleic acid antagonists with cellular anti-HIV activity, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.296, pp.1228-1237, 2002.

S. P. Stoylov, C. Vuilleumier, E. Stoylova, H. De-rocquigny, B. P. Roques et al., Ordered aggregation of ribonucleic acids by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein, Biopolymers, vol.41, pp.301-312, 1997.

M. F. Summers, L. E. Henderson, M. R. Chance, J. W. Bess, T. L. South et al., Nucleocapsid zinc fingers detected in retroviruses: EXAFS studies of intact viruses and the solution-state structure of the nucleocapsid protein from HIV-1, Protein Sci, vol.1, pp.563-574, 1992.

M. F. Summers, T. L. South, B. Kim, and D. R. Hare, High-resolution structure of an HIV zinc fingerlike domain via a new NMR-based distance geometry approach, Biochemistry, vol.29, pp.329-340, 1990.

W. I. Sundquist and H. G. Krausslich, HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation. Cold Spring Harb, Perspect. Med, vol.2, p.6924, 2012.
DOI : 10.1101/cshperspect.a015420

URL : http://perspectivesinmedicine.cshlp.org/content/2/8/a015420.full.pdf

A. Surovoy, J. Dannull, K. Moelling, and G. Jung, Conformational and nucleic acid binding studies on the synthetic nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1, J. Mol. Biol, vol.229, pp.94-104, 1993.

V. Tanchou, D. Decimo, C. Pechoux, D. Lener, V. Rogemond et al., Role of the N-terminal zinc finger of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein in virus structure and replication, J. Virol, vol.72, pp.4442-4447, 1998.

V. Tanchou, C. Gabus, V. Rogemond, and J. L. Darlix, Formation of stable and functional HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes in vitro, J. Mol. Biol, vol.252, pp.563-571, 1995.

J. A. Thomas, W. J. Bosche, T. L. Shatzer, D. G. Johnson, and R. J. Gorelick, Mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers cause premature reverse transcription, J. Virol, vol.82, pp.9318-9328, 2008.

J. A. Thomas and R. J. Gorelick, Nucleocapsid protein function in early infection processes, Virus Res, vol.134, pp.39-63, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.12.006

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2789563?pdf=render

J. A. Thomas, S. Shulenin, L. V. Coren, W. J. Bosche, T. D. Gagliardi et al., Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) containing mutations in the nucleocapsid protein at a putative HIV-1 protease cleavage site, Virology, vol.354, pp.261-270, 2006.

P. Tompa and P. Csermely, The role of structural disorder in the function of RNA and protein chaperones, FASEB J, vol.18, pp.1169-1175, 2004.

D. Trono, Partial reverse transcripts in virions from human immunodeficiency and murine leukemia viruses, J. Virol, vol.66, pp.4893-4900, 1992.

P. J. Tummino, J. D. Scholten, P. J. Harvey, T. P. Holler, L. Maloney et al., The in vitro ejection of zinc from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 nucleocapsid protein by disulfide benzamides with cellular anti-HIV activity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.93, pp.969-973, 1996.

K. B. Turner, N. A. Hagan, and D. Fabris, Inhibitory effects of archetypical nucleic acid ligands on the interactions of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein with elements of Psi-RNA, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.34, pp.1305-1316, 2006.

K. B. Turner, A. S. Kohlway, N. A. Hagan, and D. Fabris, Noncovalent probes for the investigation of structure and dynamics of protein-nucleic acid assemblies: the case of NC-mediated dimerization of genomic RNA in HIV-1, Biopolymers, vol.91, pp.283-296, 2009.

J. A. Turpin, The next generation of HIV/AIDS drugs: novel and developmental antiHIV drugs and targets, Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther, vol.1, pp.97-128, 2003.

J. A. Turpin, M. L. Schito, L. M. Jenkins, J. K. Inman, and E. Appella, Topical microbicides: a promising approach for controlling the AIDS pandemic via retroviral zinc finger inhibitors, Adv. Pharmacol, vol.56, pp.229-256, 2008.

V. N. Uversky, Natively unfolded proteins: a point where biology waits for physics, Protein Sci, vol.11, pp.739-756, 2002.
DOI : 10.1110/ps.4210102

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2373528?pdf=render

S. Vagner, A. Waysbort, M. Marenda, M. C. Gensac, F. Amalric et al., Alternative translation initiation of the Moloney murine leukemia virus mRNA controlled by internal ribosome entry involving the p57/PTB splicing factor, J. Biol. Chem, vol.270, pp.20376-20383, 1995.

M. Vandevelde, M. Witvrouw, J. C. Schmit, S. Sprecher, E. De-clercq et al., ADA, a potential anti-HIV drug, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, vol.12, pp.567-568, 1996.
DOI : 10.1089/aid.1996.12.567

T. Vercruysse, B. Basta, W. Dehaen, N. Humbert, J. Balzarini et al., Network analysis of human and simian immunodeficiency virus sequence sets reveals massive recombination resulting in shorter pathways, J. Gen. Virol, vol.9, pp.885-895, 2003.

G. S. Wallace, C. Cheng-mayer, M. L. Schito, P. Fletcher, L. M. Miller-jenkins et al., Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid inhibitors impede trans infection in cellular and explant models and protect nonhuman primates from infection, J. Virol, vol.83, pp.9175-9182, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/jvi.00820-09

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2738238?pdf=render

D. M. Warui and A. M. Baranger, Identification of specific small molecule ligands for stem loop 3 ribonucleic acid of the packaging signal Psi of human immunodeficiency virus-1, J. Med. Chem, vol.52, pp.5462-5473, 2009.

M. C. Williams, I. Rouzina, J. R. Wenner, R. J. Gorelick, K. Musier-forsyth et al., Mechanism for nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein revealed by single molecule stretching, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.98, pp.6121-6126, 2001.

P. E. Wright and H. J. Dyson, Intrinsically unstructured proteins: re-assessing the protein structure-function paradigm, J. Mol. Biol, vol.293, pp.321-331, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.1999.3110

T. Wu, S. A. Datta, M. Mitra, R. J. Gorelick, A. Rein et al., Fundamental differences between the nucleic acid chaperone activities of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein and Gag or Gag-derived proteins: biological implications, Virology, vol.405, pp.556-567, 2010.

W. Wu, L. E. Henderson, T. D. Copeland, R. J. Gorelick, W. J. Bosche et al., Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein reduces reverse transcriptase pausing at a secondary structure near the murine leukemia virus polypurine tract, J. Virol, vol.70, pp.7132-7142, 1996.

Y. Wu, HIV-1 gene expression: lessons from provirus and non-integrated DNA, Retrovirology, vol.1, p.13, 2004.

Y. T. Wu and J. W. Marsh, Selective transcription and modulation of resting T cell activity by preintegrated HIV DNA, Science, vol.293, pp.1503-1506, 2001.

N. Yan, A. D. Regalado-magdos, B. Stiggelbout, M. A. Lee-kirsch, and J. Lieberman, The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 inhibits the innate immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Nat. Immunol, vol.11, pp.1005-1013, 2010.

J. C. You and C. S. Mchenry, HIV nucleocapsid protein. Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and characterization, J. Biol. Chem, vol.268, pp.16519-16527, 1993.

J. C. You and C. S. Mchenry, Human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid protein accelerates strand transfer of the terminally redundant sequences involved in reverse transcription, J. Biol. Chem, vol.269, pp.31491-31495, 1994.

Q. Yu and J. L. Darlix, The zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein of Friend murine leukemia virus is critical for proviral DNA synthesis in vivo, J. Virol, vol.70, pp.5791-5798, 1996.

H. Zhang, O. Bagasra, M. Niikura, B. J. Poiesz, and R. J. Pomerantz, Intravirion reverse transcripts in the peripheral-blood plasma of humanimmunodeficiency-virus type 1-infected individuals, J. Virol, vol.68, pp.7591-7597, 1994.

H. Zhang, G. Dornadula, M. Beumont, L. Livornese, B. Van-uitert et al., Human immunodeficiency virus type I in the semen of men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, N. Engl. J. Med, vol.339, pp.1803-1809, 1998.

H. Zhang, G. Dornadula, and R. J. Pomerantz, Endogenous reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in physiological microenvironments: an important stage for viral infection of nondividing cells, J. Virol, vol.70, pp.2809-2824, 1996.

J. Zhang and H. M. Temin, Rate and mechanism of nonhomologous recombination during a single cycle of retroviral replication, Science, vol.259, pp.234-238, 1993.