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Developmental fidelity is imposed by genetically separable RalGEF activities that mediate opposing signals

Abstract : The six C. elegans vulval precursor cells (VPCs) are induced to form the 3°-3°-2°-1°-2°-3° pattern of cell fates with high fidelity. In response to EGF signal, the LET-60/Ras-LIN-45/Raf-MEK-2/MEK-MPK-1/ERK canonical MAP kinase cascade is necessary to induce 1° fate and synthesis of DSL ligands for the lateral Notch signal. In turn, LIN-12/Notch receptor is necessary to induce neighboring cells to become 2°. We previously showed that, in response to graded EGF signal, the modulatory LET-60/Ras-RGL-1/RalGEF-RAL-1/Ral signal promotes 2° fate in support of LIN-12. In this study, we identify two key differences between RGL-1 and RAL-1. First, deletion of RGL-1 confers no overt developmental defects, while previous studies showed RAL-1 to be essential for viability and fertility. From this observation, we hypothesize that the essential functions of RAL-1 are independent of upstream activation. Second, RGL-1 plays opposing and genetically separable roles in VPC fate patterning. RGL-1 promotes 2° fate via canonical GEF-dependent activation of RAL-1. Conversely, RGL-1 promotes 1° fate via a non-canonical GEF-independent activity. Our genetic epistasis experiments are consistent with RGL-1 functioning in the modulatory 1°-promoting AGE-1/PI3-Kinase-PDK-1-AKT-1 cascade. Additionally, animals lacking RGL-1 experience 15-fold higher rates of VPC patterning errors compared to the wild type. Yet VPC patterning in RGL-1 deletion mutants is not more sensitive to environmental perturbations. We propose that RGL-1 functions to orchestrate opposing 1°- and 2°-promoting modulatory cascades to decrease developmental stochasticity. We speculate that such switches are broadly conserved but mostly masked by paralog redundancy or essential functions.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-02154961
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 13, 2019 - 11:28:09 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 4, 2022 - 4:56:15 PM

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Hanna Shin, Christian Braendle, Kimberly B Monahan, Rebecca E W Kaplan, Tanya P Zand, et al.. Developmental fidelity is imposed by genetically separable RalGEF activities that mediate opposing signals. PLoS Genetics, 2019, 15 (5), pp.e1008056. ⟨10.1371/journal.pgen.1008056⟩. ⟨inserm-02154961⟩

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