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Characterization of immunogenic Neu5Gc in bioprosthetic heart valves

Abstract : BACKGROUND: The two common sialic acids (Sias) in mammals are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated form N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Unlike most mammals, humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc that is considered foreign and recognized by circulating antibodies. Thus, Neu5Gc is a potential xenogenic carbohydrate antigen in bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) that tend to deteriorate in time within human patients. METHODS: We investigated Neu5Gc expression in non-engineered animal-derived cardiac tissues and in clinically used commercial BHV, and evaluated Neu5Gc immunogenicity on BHV through recognition by human anti-Neu5Gc IgG. RESULTS: Neu5Gc was detected by immunohistochemistry in porcine aortic valves and in porcine and bovine pericardium. Qualitative analysis of Sia linkages revealed Siaα2-3>Siaα2-6 on porcine/bovine pericardium while the opposite in porcine aortic/pulmonary valve cusps. Similarly, six commercial BHV containing either porcine aortic valve or porcine/bovine/equine pericardium revealed Siaα2-3>Siaα2-6 expression. Quantitative analysis of Sia by HPLC showed porcine/bovine pericardium express 4-fold higher Neu5Gc levels compared to the porcine aortic/pulmonary valves, with Neu5Ac at 6-fold over Neu5Gc. Likewise, Neu5Gc was expressed on commercial BHV (186.3±16.9 pmol Sia/μg protein), with Neu5Ac at 8-fold over Neu5Gc. Affinity-purified human anti-Neu5Gc IgG showing high specificity toward Neu5Gc-glycans (with no binding to Neu5Ac-glycans) on a glycan microarray, strongly bound to all tested commercial BHV, demonstrating Neu5Gc immune recognition in cardiac xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: We conclusively demonstrated Neu5Gc expression in native cardiac tissues, as well as in six commercial BHV. These Neu5Gc xeno-antigens were recognized by human anti-Neu5Gc IgG, supporting their immunogenicity. Altogether, these findings suggest BHV-Neu5Gc/anti-Neu5Gc may play a role in valve deterioration warranting further investigation.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 12, 2019 - 10:47:11 AM
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Eliran Moshe Reuven, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Tal Marshanski, Michael E. Breimer, Hai yu, et al.. Characterization of immunogenic Neu5Gc in bioprosthetic heart valves. Xenotransplantation, Wiley, 2016, 23 (5), pp.381-392. ⟨10.1111/xen.12260⟩. ⟨inserm-02153354⟩



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