MICA Mutant A5.1 Influences BK Polyomavirus Reactivation and Associated Nephropathy After Kidney Transplantation

Abstract : Background. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) frequently reactivates in kidney transplant recipients during immunosuppressive therapy and triggers BKPyV-associated nephropathy and graft rejection. Determining effective risk factors for BKPyV reactivation is required to achieve efficient prevention. Methods. This study investigated the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related chain A (MICA) in BKPyV reactivation in a cohort of 144 transplant donor/recipient pairs, including recipients with no reactivation (controllers) and those with mild (virurics) or severe (viremics) BKPyV reactivation after graft receipt. Results. We show that, in the kidney, MICA is predominantly expressed in tubule epithelial cells, the natural targets of BKPyV, questioning a role for MICA in the immune control of BKPyV infection. Focusing on MICA genotype, we found a lower incidence of BKPyV reactivation in recipients of a renal graft from a donor carrying the MICA A5.1 mutant, which encodes a truncated nonconventional MICA. We established that a mismatch for MICA A5.1 between transplant donor and recipient is critical for BKPyV reactivation and BKPyV-associated nephropathy. Functionally, we found that a low prevalence of BKPyV reactivation was associated with elevated anti-MICA sensitization and reduced plasma level of soluble MICA in recipients, 2 potential effector mechanisms. Discussions. These findings identify the MHC-related MICA as an immunogenetic factor that may functionally influence anti-BKPyV immune responses and infection outcomes.
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Pierre Tonnerre, Nathalie Gérard, Pierre-Jean Gavlovsky, Simon Mazalrey, Maryvonne Hourmant, et al.. MICA Mutant A5.1 Influences BK Polyomavirus Reactivation and Associated Nephropathy After Kidney Transplantation. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2016, 214 (5), pp.807-816. ⟨10.1093/infdis/jiw168⟩. ⟨inserm-02150115⟩

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