Immunophenotyping Reveals the Diversity of Human Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In vivo and Their Evolution upon In vitro Amplification

Abstract : Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from human dental pulp (DP) can be expanded in vitro for cell-based and regenerative dentistry therapeutic purposes. However, their heterogeneity may be a hurdle to the achievement of reproducible and predictable therapeutic outcomes. To get a better knowledge about this heterogeneity, we designed a flow cytometric strategy to analyze the phenotype of DP cells in vivo and upon in vitro expansion with stem cell markers. We focused on the CD31 − cell population to exclude endothelial and leukocytic cells. Results showed that the in vivo CD31 − DP cell population contained 1.4% of CD56 + , 1.5% of CD146 + , 2.4% of CD271 + and 6.3% of MSCA-1 + cells but very few Stro-1 + cells (≤1%). CD56 + , CD146 + , CD271 + , and MSCA-1 + cell subpopulations expressed various levels of these markers. CD146 + MSCA-1 + , CD271 + MSCA-1 + , and CD146 + CD271 + cells were the most abundant DP-MSC populations. Analysis of DP-MSCs expanded in vitro with a medicinal manufacturing approach showed that CD146 was expressed by about 50% of CD56 + , CD271 + , MSCA-1 + , and Stro-1 + cells, and MSCA-1 by 15-30% of CD56 + , CD146 + , CD271 + , and Stro-1 + cells. These ratios remained stable with passages. CD271 and Stro-1 were expressed by <1% of the expanded cell populations. Interestingly, the percentage of CD56 + cells strongly increased from P1 (25%) to P4 (80%) both in all sub-populations studied. CD146 + CD56 + , MSCA-1 + CD56 + , and CD146 + MSCA-1 + cells were the most abundant DP-MSCs at the end of P4. These results established that DP-MSCs constitute a heterogeneous mixture of cells in pulp tissue in vivo and in culture, and that their phenotype is modified upon in vitro expansion. Further studies are needed to determine whether co-expression of specific MSC markers confers DP cells specific properties that could be used for the regeneration of human tissues, including the dental pulp, with standardized cell-based medicinal products.
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Maxime Ducret, Hugo Fabre, Olivier Degoul, Gianluigi Atzeni, Colin Mcguckin, et al.. Immunophenotyping Reveals the Diversity of Human Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In vivo and Their Evolution upon In vitro Amplification. Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers, 2016, 7, ⟨10.3389/fphys.2016.00512⟩. ⟨inserm-02149528⟩

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