Gestational Hypothyroidism Improves the Ability of the Female Offspring to Clear Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection and to Recover From Pneumococcal Pneumonia

Abstract : Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for proper fetal development. A deficit of these hormones during gestation has enduring consequences in the central nervous system of the offspring, including detrimental learning and impaired memory. Few studies have shown that thyroid hormone deficiency has a transient effect in the number of T and B cells in the offspring gestated under hypothyroidism; however, there are no studies showing whether maternal hypothyroidism during gestation impacts the response of the offspring to infections. In this study, we have evaluated whether adult mice gestated in hypothyroid mothers have an altered response to pneumococcal pneumonia. We observed that female mice gestated in hypothyroidism have increased survival rate and less bacterial dissemination to blood and brain after an intranasal challenge with Strepto-coccus pneumoniae. Further, these mice had higher amounts of inflammatory cells in the lungs and reduced production of cytokines characteristic of sepsis in spleen, blood, and brain at 48 hours after infection. Interestingly, mice gestated in hypothyroid mothers had basally increased vascular per-meability in the lungs. These observations suggest that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune response and the physiology of lungs in the offspring, increasing the resistance to respiratory bacterial infections.
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Pamela Nieto, Hernán Peñaloza, Francisco Salazar-Echegarai, Raquel Castellanos, Maria Opazo, et al.. Gestational Hypothyroidism Improves the Ability of the Female Offspring to Clear Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection and to Recover From Pneumococcal Pneumonia. Endocrinology, Endocrine Society, 2016, 157 (6), pp.2217-2228. ⟨10.1210/en.2015-1957⟩. ⟨inserm-02149148⟩

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