Regulatory B Cells with a Partial Defect in CD40 Signaling and Overexpressing Granzyme B Transfer Allograft Tolerance in Rodents

Abstract : Emerging knowledge regarding B cells in organ transplantation has demonstrated that these cells can no longer be taken as mere generators of deleterious Abs but can also act as beneficial players. We previously demonstrated in a rat model of cardiac allograft tolerance induced by short-term immunosuppression an accumulation in the blood of B cells overexpressing inhibitory molecules, a phenotype also observed in the blood of patients that spontaneously develop graft tolerance. In this study, we demonstrated the presence in the spleen of regulatory B cells enriched in the CD24intCD38+CD27+IgD2IgM+/low subpopulation, which are able to transfer donor-specific tolerance via IL-10 and TGF-b1–dependent mechanisms and to suppress in vitro TNF-a secretion. Following anti-CD40 stimulation, IgD2IgM+/low B cells were blocked in their plasma cell differentiation pathway, maintained high expression of the inhibitory molecules CD23 and Bank1, and upregulated Granzyme B and Irf4, two molecules described as highly expressed by regulatory B cells. Interestingly, these B cells recognized specifically a dominant donor Ag, suggesting restricted specificity that could lead to a particular B cell response. Regulatory B cells were not required for induction of tolerance and appeared following Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, suggesting cooperation with regulatory T cells for their expansion. Nevertheless, following transfer to new recipients, these B cells migrated to the allograft, kept their regulatory profile, and promoted local accumulation of Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Mechanisms of regulatory B cells and their cell therapy potential are important to decipher in experimental models to pave the way for future developments in the clinic.
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Justine Durand, Virginie Huchet, Emmanuel Merieau, Claire Usal, Mélanie Chesneau, et al.. Regulatory B Cells with a Partial Defect in CD40 Signaling and Overexpressing Granzyme B Transfer Allograft Tolerance in Rodents. Journal of Immunology, Publisher : Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins, c1950-. Latest Publisher : Bethesda, MD : American Association of Immunologists, 2015, 195 (10), pp.5035-5044. ⟨10.4049/jimmunol.1500429⟩. ⟨inserm-02146488⟩

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