K. Takahashi and S. Yamanaka, Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors, Cell, vol.126, p.16904174, 2006.

P. Samavarchi-tehrani, Functional genomics reveals a BMP-driven mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in the initiation of somatic cell reprogramming, Cell Stem Cell, vol.7, p.20621051, 2010.

J. M. Polo, A molecular roadmap of reprogramming somatic cells into iPS cells, Cell, vol.151, p.23260147, 2012.

J. Hansson, Highly coordinated proteome dynamics during reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency, Cell Reports, vol.2, p.23260666, 2012.

S. M. Hussein, Genome-wide characterization of the routes to pluripotency, Nature, vol.516, p.25503233, 2014.

N. Shakiba, CD24 tracks divergent pluripotent states in mouse and human cells, Nat. Commun, vol.6, p.26076835, 2015.

J. O'malley, High-resolution analysis with novel cell-surface markers identifies routes to iPS cells, Nature, vol.499, p.23728301, 2013.

J. Hanna, Direct cell reprogramming is a stochastic process amenable to acceleration, Nature, vol.462, pp.595-601, 2009.

Y. Buganim, Single-cell expression analyses during cellular reprogramming reveal an early stochastic and a late hierarchic phase, Cell, vol.150, p.22980981, 2012.

G. Morata and P. , Minutes: Mutants of Drosophila autonomously affecting cell division rate, Dev. Biol, vol.42, p.1116643, 1975.

C. Clavería, G. Giovinazzo, R. Sierra, and M. Torres, Myc-driven endogenous cell competition in the early mammalian embryo, Nature, vol.500, p.23842495, 2013.

M. Amoyel and E. A. Bach, Cell competition: How to eliminate your neighbours, Development, vol.141, p.24550108, 2014.

M. Sancho, Competitive interactions eliminate unfit embryonic stem cells at the onset of differentiation

, Dev. Cell, vol.26, p.23867226, 2013.

C. Díaz-díaz, Pluripotency surveillance by Myc-driven competitive elimination of differentiating cells, Dev. Cell, vol.42, p.28919206, 2017.

K. Woltjen, piggyBac transposition reprograms fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells, Nature, vol.458, p.19252478, 2009.

A. Gerrits, Cellular barcoding tool for clonal analysis in the hematopoietic system, Blood, vol.115, pp.2610-2618, 2010.

H. Han, MBNL proteins repress ES-cell-specific alternative splicing and reprogramming, Nature, vol.498, p.23739326, 2013.

A. Golipour, A late transition in somatic cell reprogramming requires regulators distinct from the pluripotency network, Cell Stem Cell, vol.11, p.23217423, 2012.

S. Goyal, S. Kim, I. S. Chen, and T. Chou, Mechanisms of blood homeostasis: Lineage tracking and a neutral model of cell populations in rhesus macaques, BMC Biol, vol.13, p.26486451, 2015.

P. K. Singhal, Mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit extensive developmental and phenotypic diversity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, vol.113, p.26699463, 2016.

L. L. Liu, Probabilistic modeling of reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells, Cell Reports, vol.17, p.28009305, 2016.

Y. Chai, Fate of the mammalian cranial neural crest during tooth and mandibular morphogenesis, Development, vol.127, p.10725243, 2000.

P. S. Danielian, D. Muccino, D. H. Rowitch, S. K. Michael, and A. P. Mcmahon, Modification of gene activity in mouse embryos in utero by a tamoxifen-inducible form of Cre recombinase, Curr. Biol, vol.8, p.9843687, 1998.

S. Guo, Nonstochastic reprogramming from a privileged somatic cell state, Cell, vol.156, p.24486105, 2014.

M. Pour, Epigenetic predisposition to reprogramming fates in somatic cells, EMBO Rep, vol.16, p.25600117, 2015.

U. Ben-david, N. Benvenisty, and Y. Mayshar, Genetic instability in human induced pluripotent stem cells: Classification of causes and possible safeguards, Cell Cycle, vol.9, p.21099357, 2010.

S. M. Hussein, Copy number variation and selection during reprogramming to pluripotency, Nature, vol.471, p.21368824, 2011.

J. B. Kim, Oct4-induced pluripotency in adult neural stem cells, Cell, vol.136, p.19203577, 2009.

N. Shakiba and P. W. Zandstra, Engineering cell fitness: Lessons for regenerative medicine, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol, vol.47, p.28551499, 2017.

B. P. Teague, P. Guye, and R. Weiss, Yin for performing cell culture and sample preparation for flow cytometry, and J. Ma for artistic contributions to the figures. We acknowledge the assistance and support of laboratory colleagues and collaborators. Funding: This work has been supported by Medicine by Design (University of Toronto), CFREF program, CIHR (MOP 57885), and CIHR Foundation grants to, pmid: 27270296 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the Bystrykh laboratory for sharing their barcoding plasmids. We also thank C. L. Bauwens for her editing, K. Chan for assisting with sample sequencing, M. Parsons for assisting with flow cytometry, T, vol.8, p.23929, 2016.

, This article cites 39 articles, 8 of which you can access for free