S. Via and R. Lande, Genotype-environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution, vol.39, pp.505-527, 1985.

T. D. Price, A. Qvarnstrom, and D. E. Irwin, The role of phenotypic plasticity in driving genetic evolution. Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.270, p.12965006, 1523.

R. Lande, Adaptation to an extraordinary environment by evolution of phenotypic plasticity and genetic assimilation, Journal of evolutionary biology, vol.22, issue.7, pp.1435-1481, 2009.

D. Nettle and M. Bateson, Adaptive developmental plasticity: what is it, how can we recognize it and when can it evolve? Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.282, 1812.

B. Kuijper and R. B. Hoyle, When to rely on maternal effects and when on phenotypic plasticity?, Evolution, vol.69, p.25809121, 2015.

R. Gomulkiewicz and M. Kirkpatrick, Quantitative genetics and the evolution of reaction norms, Evolution, vol.46, issue.2, pp.390-411, 1992.

S. English, P. I. Shea, N. Uller, and T. , The information value of non-genetic inheritance in plants and animals, PLoS ONE, vol.10, issue.1, p.116996, 2015.

M. C. Donaldson-matasci, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Lachmann, The fitness value of information, Oikos, vol.119, issue.2, pp.219-249, 2010.

M. C. Donaldson-matasci, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Lachmann, When unreliable cues are good enough, The American naturalist, vol.182, pp.313-340, 2013.

B. Kuijper, R. A. Johnstone, and S. Townley, The evolution of multivariate maternal effects, PLoS Comput Biol, vol.10, p.24722346, 2014.

S. Proulx and H. Teotonio, What kind of maternal effects are selected for in fluctuating environments?, 2015.

T. A. Mosseau and C. W. Fox, Maternal effects as adaptations, 1998.

T. Uller, Developmental plasticity and the evolution of parental effects, Trends in ecology & evolution, vol.23, pp.432-440, 2008.

J. B. Wolf and M. J. Wade, What are maternal effects (and what are they not, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences, vol.364, pp.1107-1122, 1520.

R. B. Hoyle and T. H. Ezard, The benefits of maternal effects in novel and in stable environments, J R Soc Interface, vol.9, issue.75, pp.2403-2416, 2012.

E. Jablonka, B. Oborny, I. Molnár, E. Kisdi, J. Hofbauer et al., The adaptive advantage of phenotypic memory in changing environments, P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci, vol.350, pp.133-174, 1995.

T. Day and R. Bonduriansky, A unified approach to the evolutionary consequences of genetic and nongenetic inheritance, The American naturalist, vol.178, issue.2, pp.18-36, 2011.

O. Leimar and J. M. Mcnamara, The evolution of transgenerational integration of information in heterogeneous environments, The American naturalist, vol.185, pp.55-69, 2015.

A. Robertson, A mathematical model of the culling process in dairy cattle, Anim Prod, vol.8, pp.95-108, 1966.

S. Rice, Evolutionary theory: mathematical and conceptual foundations, 2004.

R. Lande and T. D. Price, Genetic correlations and maternal effect coefficients obtained from offspringparent regression, Genetics, vol.122, p.2759429, 1989.

R. Lande and M. Kirkpatrick, Selection response in traits with maternal inheritance, Genet Res, vol.55, p.2394377, 1990.

J. B. Wolf, E. D. Brodie, . Iii, J. M. Cheverud, A. J. Moore et al., Evolutionary consequences of indirect genetic effects, Trends in ecology & evolution, vol.13, pp.64-73, 1998.

J. Bull, Evolution of phenotypic variance, Evolution, vol.41, pp.303-318, 1987.

R. H. Kaplan and W. S. Cooper, The evolution of developmental plasticity in reproductive characteristics: an application of the 'adaptive coin-flipping' principle. The American naturalist, vol.123, pp.393-410, 1984.

J. Seger and H. J. Brockman, What is bet-hedging?, Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology. 4, pp.182-211, 1987.

A. M. Simons, Fluctuating natural selection accounts for the evolution of diversification bet hedging, vol.276, 1664.

J. Tufto, Genetic evolution, plasticity, and bet-hedging as adaptive responses to temporally autocorrelated fluctuating selection: A quantitative genetic model, Evolution, vol.69, issue.8, pp.2034-2083, 2015.

A. M. Simons and M. O. Johnston, Developmental instability as a bet-hedging strategy, Oikos, vol.80, pp.401-407, 1997.

A. I. Furness, K. Lee, and D. N. Reznick, Adaptation in a variable environment: Phenotypic plasticity and bethedging during egg diapause and hatching in an annual killifish, Evolution, vol.69, issue.6, p.25908306, 2015.

A. M. Simons, Modes of response to environmental change and the elusive empirical evidence for bet hedging, vol.278, p.21411456, 1712.

E. R. Dempster, Maintenance of genetic heterogeneity, Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol, vol.20, p.13433552, 1955.

D. Cohen, Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment, Journal of theoretical biology, vol.12, pp.119-148, 1966.

S. D. Tuljapurkar, Population dynamics in variable environments. II. Correlated environments, sensitivity analysis and dynamics, Theor Pop Biol, vol.21, pp.114-154, 1982.

S. Proulx and T. Day, What can invasion analyses tell us about evolution under stochasticity in finite populations? Selection, vol.2, pp.1-15, 2001.

R. Lande, Expected relative fitness and the adaptive topography of fluctuating selection, Evolution, vol.61, issue.8, p.17683427, 2007.

D. A. Roach and R. D. Wulff, Maternal effects in plants, Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst, vol.18, pp.209-244, 1987.

A. J. Crean and D. J. Marshall, Coping with environmental uncertainty: dynamic bet hedging as a maternal effect, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences, vol.364, pp.1087-96, 1520.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.2008.0237

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2666679?pdf=render

A. G. Mcadam and S. Boutin, Maternal effects and the response to selection in red squirrels, Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.271, pp.75-84, 1534.

B. Dantzer, A. Newman, R. Boonstra, R. Palme, S. Boutin et al., Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal, Science, vol.340, p.23599265, 2013.

R. A. Duckworth, V. Belloni, and S. R. Anderson, Cycles of species replacement emerge from locally induced maternal effects on offspring behavior in a passerine bird, Science, vol.347, p.25700519, 2015.

L. F. Galloway and J. R. Etterson, Transgenerational plasticity is adaptive in the wild, Science, vol.318, p.18006745, 2007.

D. Z. Childs, C. J. Metcalf, and M. Rees, Evolutionary bet-hedging in the real world: empirical evidence and challenges revealed by plants. Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.277, pp.3055-64, 1697.

M. R. Walsh, C. Ft, K. Biles, and S. B. Munch, Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity within-and acrossgenerations: a challenge for theory? Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.282, p.20142205, 1798.

D. Marshall and T. Uller, When is a maternal effect adaptive? Oikos, vol.116, pp.1957-63, 2007.

K. L. Sikkink, C. M. Ituarte, R. M. Reynolds, W. A. Cresko, and P. C. Phillips, The transgenerational effects of heat stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei are negative and rapidly eliminated under direct selection for increased stress resistance in larvae, Genomics, vol.104, p.25283346, 2014.

B. J. Pollux, R. W. Meredith, M. S. Springer, T. Garland, and D. N. Reznick, The evolution of the placenta drives a shift in sexual selection in livebearing fish, Nature, vol.513, issue.7517, pp.233-239, 2014.

J. M. Cheverud, Evolution by kin selection: a quantitative genetic model illustrated by maternal performance in mice, Evolution, vol.38, pp.766-77, 1984.

J. K. Graham, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Simons, Experimental evolution of bet hedging under manipulated environmental uncertainty in Neurospora crassa. Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, p.281, 1787.

. Frazier-hn-3rd and M. B. Roth, Adaptive sugar provisioning controls survival of C. elegans embryos in adverse environments, Current biology: CB, vol.19, issue.10, pp.859-63, 2009.

J. C. Lamacchia, H. N. Frazier, . Iii, and M. B. Roth, Glycogen fuels survival during hyposmotic-anoxic stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.201, pp.65-74, 2015.

J. C. Lamacchia and M. B. Roth, Aquaporins 2 and 4 regulate glycogen metabolism and survival during hyposmotic-anoxic Stress in Caenorhabditis Elegans, American journal of physiology Cell physiology, 2015.

I. M. Chelo and H. Teotonio, The opportunity for balancing selection in experimental populations of Caenorhabditis elegans, Evolution, vol.67, issue.1, p.23289568, 2013.

H. Teotonio, S. Carvalho, D. Manoel, M. Roque, and I. M. Chelo, Evolution of outcrossing in experimental populations of Caenorhabditis elegans, PLoS ONE, vol.7, issue.4, p.22540006, 2012.

I. Theologidis, I. M. Chelo, C. Goy, and H. Teotónio, Reproductive assurance drives transitions to self-fertilization in experimental Caenorhabditis elegans, BMC biology, vol.12, issue.1, p.93, 2014.

W. N. Venables and B. D. Ripley, Modern applied statistics with S, 2002.

R. V. Lenth, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. lsmeans: Least-Squares Means R package version 200-4, 2014.

U. Halekoh and S. Højsgaard, A Kenward-Roger approximation and parametric bootstrap methods for tests in linear mixed models-The R package pbkrtest, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.58, issue.10, pp.1-30, 2014.

S. Dey, S. Proulx, and H. Teotonio, Data from: Adaptation to temporally fluctuating environments by the evolution of maternal Effects, 2016.

J. F. Crow and M. Kimura, An introduction to population genetics theory, 1970.

A. D. Stewart and P. C. Phillips, Selection and maintenance of androdioecy in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.160, issue.3, p.11901115, 2002.

S. Carvalho, P. C. Phillips, and H. Teotonio, Hermaphrodite life history and the maintenance of partial selfing in experimental populations of Caenorhabditis elegans, BMC evolutionary biology, vol.14, p.117, 2014.

R. L. Trivers, Parent-offspring conflict, Am Zool, vol.14, pp.249-64, 1974.

S. Estes, P. C. Phillips, D. R. Denver, W. K. Thomas, and M. Lynch, Mutation accumulation in populations of varying size: the distribution of mutational effects for fitness correlates in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.166, issue.3, p.15082546, 2004.

D. J. Marshall and S. C. Burgess, Deconstructing environmental predictability: seasonality, environmental colour and the biogeography of marine life histories, Ecol Lett, vol.18, issue.2, pp.174-81, 2015.

J. M. Halley, Ecology, evolution and 1/f-noise, Trends in ecology & evolution, vol.11, pp.33-40, 1996.

E. Pollak, On the theory of partially inbreeding finite populations. I. Partial selfing, Genetics, vol.117, issue.2, p.3666446, 1987.

S. R. Proulx and F. R. Adler, The standard of neutrality: still flapping in the breeze, Journal of evolutionary biology, vol.23, issue.7, p.20492093, 2010.

H. Teotonio, I. M. Chelo, M. Bradic, M. R. Rose, and A. D. Long, Experimental evolution reveals natural selection on standing genetic variation, Nature genetics, vol.41, issue.2, pp.251-258, 2009.

I. M. Chelo, J. Nédli, I. Gordo, and H. Teotónio, An experimental test on the probability of extinction of new genetic variants, Nature Communications, vol.4, 2013.

S. Peischl and M. Kirkpatrick, Establishment of new mutations in changing environments, Genetics, vol.191, issue.3, pp.895-906, 2012.

M. F. Palopoli, C. Peden, C. Woo, K. Akiha, M. Ary et al., Natural and experimental evolution of sexual conflict within Caenorhabditis nematodes, BMC evolutionary biology, vol.15, p.93, 2015.

K. L. Sikkink, R. M. Reynolds, C. M. Ituarte, W. A. Cresko, and P. C. Phillips, Rapid evolution of phenotypic plasticity and shifting thresholds of genetic assimilation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, G3, vol.4, pp.1103-1115, 2014.

D. L. Miller and M. C. Roth, elegans are protected from lethal hypoxia by an embryonic diapause, Current biology: CB, vol.19, issue.14, p.19576771, 2009.

P. A. Padilla, T. G. Nystul, R. A. Zager, A. C. Johnson, and M. B. Roth, Dephosphorylation of cell cycle-regulated proteins correlates with anoxia-induced suspended animation in Caenorhabditis elegans, Molecular biology of the cell, vol.13, issue.5, pp.1473-83, 2002.

L. G. Edgar, N. Wolf, and W. J. Wood, Early transcription in C. elegans embryos, Development, vol.120, p.7512022, 1994.

T. C. Evans and C. P. Hunter, Translational control of maternal RNAs. WormBook: the online review of C elegans biology, 2005.

B. Bowerman, Maternal control of pattern formation in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, Curr Top Dev Biol, vol.39, p.9475998, 1998.

A. R. Mendenhall, M. G. Leblanc, D. P. Mohan, and P. A. Padilla, Reduction in ovulation or male sex phenotype increases long-term anoxia survival in a daf-16-independent manner in Caenorhabditis elegans, Physiol Genomics, vol.36, p.19050081, 2008.

A. R. Mendenhall, B. Larue, and P. A. Padilla, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mediates anoxia response and survival in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.174, issue.3, pp.1173-87, 2006.

S. C. Harvey and H. E. Orbidans, All eggs are not equal: the maternal environment affects progeny reproduction and developmental fate in Caenorhabditis elegans, PLoS ONE, vol.6, issue.10, p.25840, 2011.

J. Hodgkin and T. M. Barnes, More is not better: brood size and population growth in a self-fertilizing nematode. Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.246, pp.19-24, 1315.

S. Gavrilets, One-locus two-allele models with maternal (paternal) selection, Genetics, vol.149, p.9611222, 1998.

B. B. Bohren, W. G. Hill, and A. Robertson, Some observations on asymmetrical correlated responses to selection, Genet Res, vol.7, p.5906491, 1966.

M. R. Rose, J. L. Graves, and E. W. Hutchinson, The use of selection to probe patterns of pleiotropy in fitness characters, Insect Life Cycles: Genetics, Evolution and Co-ordination, 1990.

F. Menu, J. P. Roebuck, and M. Viala, Bet-dedging diapause strategies in stochastic environments, The American naturalist, vol.6, pp.724-758, 2000.

M. J. Clauss and D. L. Venable, Seed germination in desert annuals: an empirical test of adaptive bet hedging, The American naturalist, vol.155, p.10686159, 2000.

R. E. Furrow and M. W. Feldman, Genetic variation and the evolution of epigenetic regulation, Evolution, vol.68, issue.3, p.24588347, 2014.

T. Uller, S. English, and P. I. , When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection? Proceedings Biological sciences / The Royal Society, vol.282, p.20150682, 1811.

R. Prizak, T. H. Ezard, and R. B. Hoyle, Fitness consequences of maternal and grandmaternal effects. Ecology and evolution, vol.4, pp.3139-3184, 2014.

J. Remy, Stable inheritance of an acquired behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans, Current Biology, vol.20, issue.20, p.20971427, 2010.

D. Schott, I. Yanai, and C. P. Hunter, Natural RNA interference directs a heritable response to the environment, Sci Rep, vol.4, p.7387, 2014.

O. Rechavi, L. Houri-ze'evi, S. Anava, W. S. Goh, S. Y. Kerk et al., Starvation-induced transgenerational inheritance of small RNAs in C. elegans, Cell, vol.158, issue.2, p.25018105, 2014.

T. Stiernagle, Maintenance of C. elegans. Hope IA, editor, 1999.

R. Development-core and . Team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2013.

L. M. Chevin, On measuring selection in experimental evolution, Biology letters, vol.7, issue.2, p.20810425, 2011.

J. K. Presnell and M. Schreibman, Humanson's Animal Tissue Techniques, 1997.

M. Bradic, J. Costa, and I. M. Chelo, Genotyping with Sequenom, Molecular Methods for Evolutionary Genetics, vol.772, 2011.

P. Scheet and M. Stephens, A fast and flexible statistical model for large-scale population genotype data: applications to inferring missing genotypes and haplotypic phase, Am J Hum Genet, vol.78, issue.4, p.16532393, 2006.

S. R. Proulx, The rate of multi-step evolution in Moran and Wright-Fisher populations. Theoretical population biology, vol.80, pp.197-207, 2011.