Mycobacterium iranicum bacteremia and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium iranicum has recently been recognised as an opportunistic human pathogen. Although infectious conditions represent frequent triggers for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections are rarely associated with this entity. To this date, M. iranicum infection has never been reported in France, has never been associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and has never been found to be multi-resistant on standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a French Caucasian man with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the context of M. iranicum bacteraemia and Hodgkin's disease. We review available data concerning M. iranicum antimycobacterial susceptibility testing and treatment outcomes. We also review the association between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. CONCLUSION: Interpretation of M. iranicum positive cultures remains a clinical challenge and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections need to be considered in secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis differential diagnosis.
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Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Alexandre Toro, Michel Drancourt. Mycobacterium iranicum bacteremia and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report. BMC Research Notes, BioMed Central, 2017, 10 (1), pp.372. ⟨10.1186/s13104-017-2684-8⟩. ⟨inserm-02076211⟩

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