. Société-centrale-canine, Statistiques des races canines, 2016.

, The Kennel Club [Homepage on the Internet] Comparative tables of registrations for the years 2006-2015 inclusive, 2016.

S. Smith, Most popular dog breeds in America, American Kennel Club Website, 2016.

, The Canadian Kennel Club, 2016.

M. Inoue, A. Hasegawa, Y. Hosoi, and K. Sugiura, Breed, gender and age pattern of diagnosis for veterinary care in insured dogs in Japan during fiscal year 2010, Prev Vet Med, vol.119, pp.54-60, 2015.

C. W. Dewey, E. Davies, and J. L. Bouma, Kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis associated with congenital malformations of the thoracic vertebral bodies in dogs, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, vol.46, pp.295-306, 2016.

D. A. Mauler, D. Decker, S. , D. Risio, and L. , Signalment, clinical presentation, and diagnostic findings in 122 dogs with spinal arachnoid diverticula, J Vet Intern Med, vol.28, pp.175-81, 2014.

T. P. Bellumori, T. R. Famula, D. L. Bannasch, J. M. Bellanger, and A. M. Oberbauer, Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010), J Am Vet Med Assoc, vol.242, pp.1549-55, 2013.

R. B. Song, C. H. Vite, C. W. Bradley, and J. R. Cross, Postmortem evaluation of 435 cases of intracranial neoplasia in dogs and relationship of neoplasm with breed, age, and body weight, J Vet Intern Med, vol.27, pp.1143-52, 2013.

I. Cornelis, H. A. Volk, D. Decker, and S. , Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology, Vet Rec, 2016.

R. T. Bentley, Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of brain tumors in dogs, Vet J, vol.205, pp.204-220, 2015.

R. E. Pollard, C. M. Reilly, M. R. Uerling, F. D. Wood, and E. C. Feldman, Cross-sectional imaging characteristics of pituitary adenomas, invasive adenomas and adenocarcinomas in dogs: 33 cases (1988-2006), J Vet Intern Med, vol.24, issue.1, pp.160-165, 2010.

N. Granger, P. M. Smith, and N. D. Jeffery, Clinical findings and treatment of noninfectious meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs: a systematic review of 457 published cases from 1962 to, Vet J, vol.184, pp.290-297, 2008.

L. De-risio, S. Bhatti, and K. Muñana, International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal: diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs, BMC Vet Res, vol.11, issue.1, p.148, 2015.

C. W. Dewey, Encephalopathies : Disorders of the Brain, Practical guide to canine and feline neurology, pp.141-236, 2016.

J. J. Cooper, B. D. Young, J. F. Griffin, G. T. Fosgate, and J. M. Levine, Comparison between noncontrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for detection and characterization of thoracolumbar myelopathy caused by intervertebral disk herniation in dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound, vol.55, issue.2, pp.182-191, 2014.

S. A. Gomes, H. A. Volk, R. M. Packer, P. J. Kenny, E. Beltrán et al., Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusions and protrusions in large breed dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound, vol.57, issue.4, pp.417-443, 2016.

O. Schmied, L. Golini, and F. Steffen, Effectiveness of cervical hemilaminectomy in canine Hansen type I and type II disc disease: a retrospective study, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, vol.47, issue.5, pp.342-50, 2011.

R. C. Da-costa and L. B. Cook, Cystic abnormalities of the spinal cord and vertebral column, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, vol.46, issue.2, pp.277-93, 2016.

R. S. Bagley, Spinal neoplasms in small animals, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, vol.40, pp.915-942, 2010.

P. M. Scheifele and J. G. Clark, Electrodiagnostic evaluation of auditory function in the dog, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, vol.42, issue.6, pp.1241-57, 2012.

T. Cardy, D. Decker, S. Kenny, P. J. Volk, and H. A. , Clinical reasoning in canine spinal disease: what combination of clinical information is useful?, Vet Rec, vol.177, issue.7, pp.171-172, 2015.

S. Canal, B. Contiero, F. Balducci, P. Calò, and M. Bernardini, Risk factors for diskospondylitis in dogs after spinal decompression surgery for intervertebral disk herniation, J Am Vet Med Assoc, vol.248, issue.12, pp.1383-90, 2016.

J. E. Goggin, A. S. Li, and C. E. Franti, Canine intervertebral disk disease: characterization by age, sex, breed, and anatomic site of involvement, Am J Vet Res, vol.31, issue.9, pp.1687-92, 1970.

T. Hakozaki, M. Iwata, and N. Kanno, Cervical intervertebral disk herniation in chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs: 187 cases (1993-2013), J Am Vet Med Assoc, vol.247, pp.1408-1419, 2015.

M. J. Dallman, P. Palettas, and M. J. Bojrab, Characteristics of dogs admitted for treatment of cervical intervertebral disk disease: 105 cases (1972-1982), J Am Vet Med Assoc, vol.200, pp.2009-2020, 1992.

T. Aikawa, H. Fujita, S. Kanazono, M. Shibata, and Y. Yoshigae, Long-term neurologic outcome of hemilaminectomy and disk fenestration for treatment of dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation: 831 cases, J Am Vet Med Assoc, vol.241, pp.1617-1643, 2000.

T. Aikawa, M. Shibata, and M. Asano, A comparison of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion in French bulldogs and Dachshunds and association with congenital vertebral anomalies, Vet Surg, vol.43, pp.301-308, 2014.

T. Murakami, D. A. Feeney, J. L. Willey, and B. P. Carlin, Evaluation of the accuracy of neurologic data, survey radiographic results, or both for localization of the site of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation in dogs, Am J Vet Res, vol.75, pp.251-260, 2014.

H. Itoh, Y. Hara, and N. Yoshimi, A retrospective study of intervertebral disc herniation in dogs in Japan: 297 cases, J Vet Med Sci, vol.70, pp.701-707, 2008.

J. H. Rossmeisl, C. White, T. E. Pancotto, A. Bays, and P. N. Henao-guerrero, Acute adverse events associated with ventral slot decompression in 546 dogs with cervical intervertebral disc disease, Vet Surg, vol.42, issue.7, pp.795-806, 2013.

K. Faller, J. Penderis, C. Stalin, J. Guevar, C. Yeamans et al., The effect of kyphoscoliosis on intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs, Vet J, vol.200, issue.3, pp.449-51, 2014.

P. Moissonnier, P. Gossot, and S. Scotti, Thoracic kyphosis associated with hemivertebra, Vet Surg, vol.40, pp.1029-1061, 2011.

R. Ryan, R. Gutierrez-quintana, H. Ter, G. , D. Decker et al., Prevalence of thoracic vertebral malformations in French bulldogs, pugs and English bulldogs with and without associated neurological deficits, Vet J, vol.221, pp.25-34, 2017.

R. T. Bentley, C. P. Ober, and K. L. Anderson, Canine intracranial gliomas: relationship between magnetic resonance imaging criteria and tumor type and grade, Vet J, vol.198, issue.2, pp.463-71, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.08.015

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3868339?pdf=render

S. Ródenas, M. Pumarola, L. Gaitero, A. Zamora, and S. Añor, Magnetic resonance imaging findings in 40 dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial tumours, Vet J, vol.187, pp.85-91, 2011.

B. D. Young, J. M. Levine, and B. F. Porter, Magnetic resonance imaging features of intracranial astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas in dogs, Vet Radiol Ultrasound, vol.52, issue.2, pp.132-173, 2011.

G. M. Strain, Deafness prevalence and pigmentation and gender associations in dog breeds at risk, Vet J, vol.167, pp.23-32, 2004.

L. De-risio, T. Lewis, J. Freeman, A. De-stefani, L. Matiasek et al., heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the border collie, Vet J, vol.188, pp.286-90, 2011.

B. Comito, K. E. Knowles, and G. M. Strain, Congenital deafness in Jack Russell terriers: prevalence and association with phenotype, Vet J, vol.193, pp.404-411, 2012.

S. F. Sommerlad, J. M. Morton, M. Haile-mariam, I. Johnstone, J. M. Seddon et al., Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian cattle dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex, BMC Vet Res, vol.8, p.202, 2012.

L. De-risio, J. Freeman, and T. Lewis, Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and coat pigmentation phenotype in the English bull terrier, BMC Vet Res, vol.12, issue.1, p.146, 2016.

L. S. Garosi, R. Dennis, and J. Penderis, Results of magnetic resonance imaging in dogs with vestibular disorders: 85 cases (1996-1999), J Am Vet Med Assoc, vol.218, pp.385-91, 2001.

P. J. Irwin and B. W. Parry, Streptococcal meningoencephalitis in a dog, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, vol.35, pp.417-439, 1999.

T. Merl, M. Scholz, and P. Gerhardt, Results of a prospective multicenter study for evaluation of the diagnostic quality of an open whole-body lowfield MRI unit. A comparison with high-field MRI measured by the applicable gold standard, Eur J Radiol, vol.30, pp.43-53, 1999.