Mortality in the first six months among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients empirically treated for tuberculosis

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Empirical treatment of tuberculosis (TB) may be necessary in patients with negative or no Xpert MTB/RIF results. In a context with access to Xpert, we assessed mortality in the 6 months after the initial TB consultation among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who received empirical TB treatment or TB treatment based on bacteriological confirmation and we compared it with the mortality among those who did not receive TB treatment. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included consecutively adult patients with signs and symptoms of TB attending an outpatient TB clinic in Western Kenya. At the first consultation, patients received a clinical exam and chest X-ray. Sputum was collected for microscopy, Xpert and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) culture. Patients not started on TB treatment were reassessed after 5 days. All patients bacteriologically confirmed (positive Xpert or culture) received TB treatment. Empirical treatment was defined as a decision to start TB treatment without bacteriological confirmation. Patients were reassessed after 6 months. RESULTS: Of 606 patients included, 344/606 (56.8%) were women. Median age was 35 years [Interquartile Range (IQR):27-47] and 398/594 (67.0%) were HIV-positive. In total, 196/606 (32.3%) patients were Xpert- or culture-positive and 331/606 (54.6%) started TB treatment. Overall, 100/398 (25.1%) HIV-positive and 31/196 (15.8%) HIV-negative patients received empirical treatment. Mortality in the 6 months following the first consultation was 1.6 and 0.8/100 patient-months among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients respectively. In the multivariate analyses, TB treatment - whether empirical or based on bacteriological confirmation- was not associated with increased mortality among HIV-positive patients (aHR:2.51, 95%CI:0.79-7.90 and aHR:1.25, 95%CI:0.37-4.21 respectively). However, HIV-negative patients who received empirical treatment had a higher risk of mortality (aHR:4.85, 95%CI:1.08-21.67) compared to those not started on treatment. HIV-negative patients treated for TB based on bacteriological confirmation did not have a different risk of mortality (aHR:0.77, 95%CI:0.08-7.41). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in a context with access to Xpert, clinicians should continue using empirical TB treatment in HIV-positive patients with signs and symptoms of TB and negative Xpert results. However, differential diagnoses other than TB should be actively sought before initiating empirical TB treatment, particularly in HIV-negative patients.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadatas

Cited literature [32 references]  Display  Hide  Download

https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-02047849
Contributor : Myriam Bodescot <>
Submitted on : Monday, February 25, 2019 - 11:33:54 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 29, 2019 - 1:40:02 PM
Long-term archiving on : Sunday, May 26, 2019 - 1:59:32 PM

File

12879_2019_Article_3775.pdf
Publisher files allowed on an open archive

Identifiers

Collections

Citation

Helena Huerga, Gabriella Ferlazzo, Stephen Wanjala, Mathieu Bastard, Paolo Bevilacqua, et al.. Mortality in the first six months among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients empirically treated for tuberculosis. BMC Infectious Diseases, BioMed Central, 2019, 19 (1), pp.132. ⟨10.1186/s12879-019-3775-z⟩. ⟨inserm-02047849⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

60

Files downloads

87