Comparing “intra operative” tissue engineering strategies for the repair of craniofacial bone defects

Abstract : BACKGROUND: In craniofacial reconstruction, the gold standard procedure for bone regeneration is the autologous bone graft (BG). However, this procedure requiring bone harvesting is a source of morbidity. Bone substitutes, such as biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), represent an interesting alternative but are not sufficient for bone healing in hypoplastic conditions. In such conditions, osteoprogenitors are essential to provide osteoinduction. Previous studies have shown that BCP associated with total bone marrow (TBM) provides same bone reconstruction as bone graft in a rat model of calvaria defect. Furthermore, adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF) seems to be another promising source of osteoprogenitor cells that can be used intra-operatively. This study aimed to combine, intra-operative BCP-based bone tissue engineering strategies with TBM or SVF from human sources. METHODS: 5 mm critical-size calvaria defects were performed in 18 nude rat. The defects were filled with intra-operative bone tissue engineering procedures: human BG, human TBM + BCP, human SVF + BCP and, rat TBM + BCP. Animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after implantation and calvaria were processed for histological and radiological examinations. Implanted cells were labelled with a fluorochrome. RESULTS: Micro-CT analysis revealed partial repair of bone defect. Only hBG significantly succeeded in healing the defect (43.1%). However, low rate of newly formed bone tissue was observed in all tissue engineering conditions (hTBM, hSVF, ratTBM). DISCUSSION: The lack of bone formation observed in this study could possibly be attributed to the model. CONCLUSION: This study combined with a literature analysis show the stringency of the nude rat calvaria model in term of bone regeneration.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 30, 2019 - 10:49:16 AM
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Vincent Hivernaud, Fanny Grimaud, Jérôme Guicheux, Sophie Portron, Richard Pace, et al.. Comparing “intra operative” tissue engineering strategies for the repair of craniofacial bone defects. Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Elsevier Masson, 2019, Epub ahead of print. ⟨10.1016/j.jormas.2019.01.002⟩. ⟨inserm-01999548⟩

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