Primaquine 30 mg/day versus 15 mg/day during 14 days for the prevention of Plasmodium vivax relapses in adults in French Guiana: a historical comparison

Abstract : BACKGROUND: The preventive treatment of Plasmodium vivax relapse recommended by the World Health Organization is primaquine at a dose of 15 mg/day for 14 days, except for malaria cases from Asia and Oceania. Since 2006, CDC recommends the use of primaquine at 30 mg/day for 14 days. In France, all cases of malaria due to P. vivax are treated with 30 mg of primaquine. This systematically increased dosage needs to be evaluated according to epidemiological context. The aim of the study was to compare relapses after 14 days of primaquine at 15 or 30 mg/day. METHODS: All patients treated with primaquine after a vivax malaria episode in French Guiana, between 1 January, 2007 and 1 August, 2016, were studied. Based on the compulsory hospital pharmacy forms for primaquine delivery, adult patients who received 15 or 30 mg of primaquine during 14 days for hypnozoite eradication were included. The recommended dose was initially 15 mg and was changed to 30 mg in 2011. Vivax malaria recurrences within 2 months after primaquine treatment, and vivax malaria recurrences 2-6 months after primaquine in each treatment group were analysed using survival analysis at 2, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Out of 544 patients included, 283 received 15 mg/day and 261 received 30 mg/day of primaquine. At 2 and 3 months after primaquine treatment, the number of recurrences was 7 (2.5%) and 19 (7.3%), and 9 (3.4%) and 15 (5.3%), in the 15 and 30 mg groups (p = 0.51 respectively 0.35), respectively. Within 3 months, the median time to recurrence was 2.05 months in the 15 and 30 mg groups. At 6 months after primaquine treatment, the number of recurrences was 25 (8.8%) and 31 (11.9%) at 15 and 30 mg, respectively (p = 0.24). The median time to recurrence was 2.38 months at 15 mg/day and of 2.64 months at 30 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences between primaquine at 15 or 30 mg/day for 14 days in the prevention of P. vivax relapses at 2, 3 and 6 months after primaquine treatment in French Guiana
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Audrey Valdes, Loïc Epelboin, Emilie Mosnier, Gaelle Walter, Guillaume Vesin, et al.. Primaquine 30 mg/day versus 15 mg/day during 14 days for the prevention of Plasmodium vivax relapses in adults in French Guiana: a historical comparison. Malaria Journal, BioMed Central, 2018, 17 (1), pp.237. ⟨10.1186/s12936-018-2378-2⟩. ⟨inserm-01872089⟩

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