The HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in French Guiana and Suriname Is Driven by Ongoing Transmissions of Pandemic and Non-pandemic Lineages

Abstract : The HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in French Guiana and Suriname is characterized by the co-circulation of the globally disseminated " B PANDEMIC " lineage and of non-pandemic subtype B lineages of Caribbean origin (B CAR). To reconstruct the spatiotemporal pattern of spread of those viral lineages circulating in these two countries, a total of 361 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences recovered from treatment-naive adult patients from French Guiana and Suriname between 2006 and 2012 were combined with B PANDEMIC and B CAR reference sequences. Major Guianese/Surinamese B PANDEMIC and B CAR lineages were identified by Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the spatiotemporal and demographic parameters estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based method. We detected four B CAR and three B PANDEMIC transmission chains of large size that together comprise most pandemic and non-pandemic subtype B sequences from French Guiana (≥52%) and Suriname (≥70%) here analyzed. These major lineages were probably introduced into French Guiana and Suriname from the Caribbean (B CAR) and North/South America (B PANDEMIC) between the middle 1970s and the late 1980s and spread among populations from both countries with roughly comparable demographic growth rates. We detected a significant trend for higher viral loads and higher proportion of homosexual/bisexual men among subjects infected with B PANDEMIC relative to B CAR strains in French Guiana. These results show that the HIV subtype B epidemic in French Guiana and Suriname has been driven by multiple active B CAR and B PANDEMIC transmission chains that arose since the middle 1970s onward and operate in both countries simultaneously. Although no significant differences in the epidemic potential of major B CAR and B PANDEMIC lineages were observed, relevant associations between the infecting subtype B lineage and epidemiological and clinical characteristics were detected in French Guiana.
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Gonzalo Bello, Mathieu Nacher, Flavia Divino, Edith Darcissac, Daiana Mir, et al.. The HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in French Guiana and Suriname Is Driven by Ongoing Transmissions of Pandemic and Non-pandemic Lineages. Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media, 2018, 9, pp.1738. ⟨10.3389/fmicb.2018.01738⟩. ⟨inserm-01868792⟩

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