K. Ono, H. Kaneko, S. Choudhary, C. C. Pilbeam, J. A. Lorenzo et al., Biphasic Effect of Prostaglandin E2 on Osteoclast Formation in Spleen Cell Cultures: Role of the EP2 Receptor, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol.18, issue.1, pp.23-29, 2005.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.165.8.4254

R. Tsutsumi, C. Xie, X. Wei, M. Zhang, X. Zhang et al., PGE2 Signaling Through the EP4 Receptor on Fibroblasts Upregulates RANKL and Stimulates Osteolysis, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol.24, issue.10, pp.1753-1762, 2009.
DOI : 10.1359/jbmr.090412

O. Laneuville, D. K. Breuer, N. Xu, Z. H. Huang, D. A. Gage et al., Fatty Acid Substrate Specificities of Human Prostaglandin-endoperoxide H Synthase-1 and ???2, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.265, issue.33, pp.19330-19336, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/oms.1210010413

L. G. Raisz, C. B. Alander, and H. A. Simmons, Effects of prostaglandin E3 and eicosapentaenoic acid on rat bone in organ culture, Prostaglandins, vol.37, issue.5, pp.615-625, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0090-6980(89)90076-2

R. L. Corwin, Effects of dietary fats on bone health in advanced age, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol.68, issue.6, pp.379-386, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0952-3278(03)00062-0

P. C. Calder, n???3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.24, issue.6, pp.1505-1519, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2003.10.002

D. D. Diascro, . Jr, R. L. Vogel, T. E. Johnson, K. M. Witherup et al., High Fatty Acid Content in Rabbit Serum Is Responsible for the Differentiation of Osteoblasts Into Adipocyte-like Cells, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol.10, issue.1, pp.96-106, 1998.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.270.5.2367

A. C. Maurin, P. M. Chavassieux, and P. J. Meunier, Expression of PPAR?? and ??/?? in Human Primary Osteoblastic Cells: Influence of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Calcified Tissue International, vol.37, issue.suppl 1, pp.385-392, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.embor.7400254

M. J. Jeon, J. A. Kim, S. H. Kwon, S. W. Kim, K. S. Park et al., Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-?? Inhibits the Runx2-mediated Transcription of Osteocalcin in Osteoblasts, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.113, issue.26, pp.23270-23277, 2003.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.86.2.828

D. Hwang, Modulation of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by fatty acids mediated through Toll-like receptor 4-derived signaling pathways, The FASEB Journal, vol.15, issue.14, pp.2556-2564, 2001.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.274.12.8328

H. Shi, M. V. Kokoeva, K. Inouye, I. Tzameli, H. Yin et al., TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid???induced insulin resistance, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.116, issue.11, pp.3015-3025, 2006.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI28898

K. R. Coenen, M. L. Gruen, R. S. Lee-young, M. J. Puglisi, D. H. Wasserman et al., Impact of macrophage toll-like receptor 4 deficiency on macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and the artery wall in mice, Diabetologia, vol.27, issue.2, pp.318-328, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.173.10.5901

R. W. Himes and C. W. Smith, is critical for diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a murine model, The FASEB Journal, vol.24, issue.3, pp.731-739, 2010.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.27.6.1487

G. B. Johnson, B. L. Riggs, and J. L. Platt, A genetic basis for the ???Adonis??? phenotype of low adiposity and strong bones, The FASEB Journal, vol.18, issue.11, pp.1282-1284, 2004.
DOI : 10.1096/fj.04-1572fje

C. P. Briscoe, M. Tadayyon, J. L. Andrews, W. G. Benson, J. K. Chambers et al., The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR40 Is Activated by Medium and Long Chain Fatty Acids, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.9, issue.13, pp.11303-11311, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4615-4861-4_7

Y. Itoh, Y. Kawamata, M. Harada, M. Kobayashi, R. Fujii et al., Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic ?? cells through GPR40, Nature, vol.16, issue.6928, pp.173-176, 2003.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.16.1.35

K. Kotarsky, N. E. Nilsson, B. Olde, and C. Owman, Progress in Methodology Improved Reporter Gene Assays Used to Identify Ligands Acting on Orphan Seven-Transmembrane Receptors, Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol.59, issue.6, pp.249-258, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.279.5347.84

D. K. Covington, C. A. Briscoe, A. J. Brown, J. , and C. K. , The G-protein-coupled receptor 40 family (GPR40???GPR43) and its role in nutrient sensing, Biochemical Society Transactions, vol.34, issue.5, pp.770-773, 2006.
DOI : 10.1042/BST0340770

M. G. Latour, T. Alquier, E. Oseid, C. Tremblay, T. L. Jetton et al., GPR40 Is Necessary but Not Sufficient for Fatty Acid Stimulation of Insulin Secretion In Vivo, Diabetes, vol.56, issue.4, pp.1087-1094, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/db06-1532

T. Araki, M. Hirayama, S. Hiroi, and K. Kaku, GPR40-induced insulin secretion by the novel agonist TAK-875: first clinical findings in patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol.1, issue.Suppl 2, pp.271-278, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s13340-010-0006-7

C. F. Burant, P. Viswanathan, J. Marcinak, C. Cao, M. Vakilynejad et al., TAK-875 versus placebo or glimepiride in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, The Lancet, vol.379, issue.9824, pp.1403-1411, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61879-5

N. E. Nilsson, K. Kotarsky, C. Owman, and B. Olde, Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.303, issue.4, pp.1047-1052, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00488-1

D. Y. Oh, S. Talukdar, E. J. Bae, T. Imamura, H. Morinaga et al., GPR120 Is an Omega-3 Fatty Acid Receptor Mediating Potent Anti-inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects, Cell, vol.142, issue.5, pp.687-698, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041

J. Cornish, A. Macgibbon, J. M. Lin, M. Watson, K. E. Callon et al., Modulation of Osteoclastogenesis by Fatty Acids, Endocrinology, vol.149, issue.11, pp.5688-5695, 2008.
DOI : 10.1210/en.2008-0111

URL : https://academic.oup.com/endo/article-pdf/149/11/5688/8998212/endo5688.pdf

A. Mieczkowska, M. F. Baslé, D. Chappard, and G. Mabilleau, Thiazolidinediones Induce Osteocyte Apoptosis by a G Protein-coupled Receptor 40-dependent Mechanism, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.2, issue.28, pp.23517-23526, 2012.
DOI : 10.1210/en.140.11.5060

URL : http://www.jbc.org/content/287/28/23517.full.pdf

Y. Wittrant, Y. Gorin, K. Woodruff, D. Horn, H. E. Abboud et al., High d(+)glucose concentration inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, Bone, vol.42, issue.6, pp.1122-1130, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bone.2008.02.006

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2696157?pdf=render

, GPR40 Activation Protects from Bone Loss

C. P. Briscoe, A. J. Peat, S. C. Mckeown, D. F. Corbett, A. S. Goetz et al., Pharmacological regulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells through the fatty acid receptor GPR40: identification of agonist and antagonist small molecules, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.43, issue.Suppl 2, pp.619-628, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1388-1981(02)00342-6

M. Asagiri, K. Sato, T. Usami, S. Ochi, H. Nishina et al., Autoamplification of NFATc1 expression determines its essential role in bone homeostasis, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.96, issue.9, pp.1261-1269, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00109-004-0612-6

T. Alquier, M. L. Peyot, M. G. Latour, M. Kebede, C. M. Sorensen et al., Deletion of GPR40 Impairs Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion In Vivo in Mice Without Affecting Intracellular Fuel Metabolism in Islets, Diabetes, vol.58, issue.11, pp.2607-2615, 2009.
DOI : 10.2337/db09-0362

J. Berger, P. Bailey, C. Biswas, C. A. Cullinan, T. W. Doebber et al., Thiazolidinediones produce a conformational change in peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma: binding and activation correlate with antidiabetic actions in db/db mice., Endocrinology, vol.137, issue.10, pp.4189-4195, 1996.
DOI : 10.1210/endo.137.10.8828476

K. Still, P. Grabowski, I. Mackie, M. Perry, and N. Bishop, The Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor Alpha/Delta Agonists Linoleic Acid and Bezafibrate Upregulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Induce Periosteal Bone Formation In Vivo, Calcified Tissue International, vol.302, issue.4, pp.285-292, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00223-008-9175-9

B. Y. Chan, A. Gartland, P. J. Wilson, K. A. Buckley, J. P. Dillon et al., PPAR agonists modulate human osteoclast formation and activity in vitro, Bone, vol.40, issue.1, pp.149-159, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bone.2006.07.029

H. Hounoki, E. Sugiyama, S. G. Mohamed, K. Shinoda, H. Taki et al., Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?? inhibits TNF-??-mediated osteoclast differentiation in human peripheral monocytes in part via suppression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, Bone, vol.42, issue.4, pp.765-774, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bone.2007.11.016

Y. Wan, L. W. Chong, and R. M. Evans, PPAR-?? regulates osteoclastogenesis in mice, Nature Medicine, vol.13, issue.12, pp.1496-1503, 2007.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI24130

H. Mano, C. Kimura, Y. Fujisawa, T. Kameda, M. Watanabe-mano et al., Cloning and Function of Rabbit Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ??/?? in Mature Osteoclasts, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.17, issue.11, pp.8126-8132, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/386081a0

N. J. Smith, L. A. Stoddart, N. M. Devine, L. Jenkins, and G. Milligan, The Action and Mode of Binding of Thiazolidinedione Ligands at Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.250, issue.26, pp.17527-17539, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-59745-205-2_8

D. Gras, P. Chanez, V. Urbach, I. Vachier, P. Godard et al., Thiazolidinediones induce proliferation of human bronchial epithelial cells through the GPR40 receptor, American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol.296, issue.6, pp.970-978, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMra041001

S. R. Oh, O. J. Sul, Y. Y. Kim, H. J. Kim, R. Yu et al., Saturated fatty acids enhance osteoclast survival, Journal of Lipid Research, vol.96, issue.5, pp.892-899, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0303-7207(01)00394-X