Bone marrow cell extract promotes the regeneration of irradiated bone

Abstract : Mandibular osteoradionecrosis is a severe side effect of radiotherapy after the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. As an alternative to its treatment by micro-anastomosed free-flaps, preclinical tissular engineering studies have been developed. Total bone marrow (TBM) associated with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) significantly enhanced bone formation in irradiated bone. One mechanism, explaining how bone marrow cells can help regenerate tissues like this, is the paracrine effect. The bone marrow cell extract (BMCE) makes use of this paracrine mechanism by keeping only the soluble factors such as growth factors and cytokines. It has provided significant results in repairing various tissues, but has not yet been studied in irradiated bone reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BMCE via an intraosseous or intravenous delivery, with a calcium phosphate scaffold, in irradiated bone reconstruction. Twenty rats were irradiated on their hind limbs with a single 80-Gy dose. Three weeks later, surgery was performed to create osseous defects. The intraosseous group (n = 12) studied the effect of BMCE in situ, with six combinations (empty defect, BCP, TBM, BCP-TBM, lysate only, BCP-lysate). After four different combinations of implantation (empty defect, BCP, TBM, BCP-TBM), the intravenous group (n = 8) received four intravenous injections of BMCE for 2 weeks. Five weeks after implantation, samples were explanted for histological and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Lysate immunogenicity was studied with various mixed lymphocyte reactions. Intravenous injections of BMCE led to a significant new bone formation compared to the intraosseous group. The BCP-TBM mixture remained the most effective in the intraosseous group. However, intravenous injections were more effective, with TBM placed in the defect, with or without biomaterials. Histologically, highly cellularized bone marrow was observed in the defects after intravenous injections, and not after an in situ use of the lysate. The mixed lymphocyte reactions did not show any proliferation after 3, 5, or 7 days of lysate incubation with lymphocytes from another species. This study evaluated the role of BMCE in irradiated bone reconstruction. There were significant results arguing in favor of BMCE intravenous injections. This could open new perspectives to irradiated bone reconstruction.
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Guillaume Michel, Pauline Bléry, Michaël Henoux, Jérôme Guicheux, Pierre Weiss, et al.. Bone marrow cell extract promotes the regeneration of irradiated bone. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2017, 12 (5), pp.e0178060. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0178060⟩. ⟨inserm-01845093⟩

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