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L. Z. , S. R. , A. M. , A. M. , G. K. Designed-the-study et al., J.S.W., and L.Z. analyzed the data

D. P. , N. T. , S. M. , A. M. , M. J. et al., C. provided patient samples and clinical information. L.Z. wrote the paper with input from N

, Additional information Supplementary Information accompanies this paper at doi:10

, Competing interests: L.C. receives consulting fees from Medimmune and Pfizer and patent/licensing payments from Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS); L.C. currently receives sponsored research funding from Boehringer Ingelheim

L. F. , received research funding from BMS

S. Roche-genentech, B. Bms, and . Ingelheim, reports research grants, speaker honoraria, and travel support from MSD/ Merck and BMS. I.M. has served as an advisor for, -Zeneca Medimmune and Incyte. AME participated on scientific advisory boards for Actelion

. Haliodx, . Incyte, . Msd, . Nektar, . Novartis et al., is on the Transgene administrative board and Lytix Pharma scientific advisory board and is the main founder of EverImmune. M.J.S. has research agreements with BMS and Corvus Pharmaceuticals and has received patent payments from BMS. A.M.D.G. has honoraria for certified continuing education, and travel supports from BMS, Astra-Zeneca, Roche and MSD. M. Maio has honoraria for certified continuing education, for consulting and advisory roles, research funding and travel supports from BMS, Roche and MSD. A.C.A. is a member of the SAB for Tizona Therapeutics, Potenza Therapeutics, and Idea Pharmaceuticals, which have interests in cancer immunology. A.K. received congress invitation from BMS. C.B. reports honoraria from Lilly, BMS and MSD, serves as advisory roles from Servier and Roche and receives research grants from Roche, B.D. reports BMS board participation, investigator for BMS clinical trials and congress invitation. Y.K. reports ownership interest in a patent regarding serum biomarkers for ipilimumab treatment (WO2016127052.A1)

M. H. Symphogen, A. Denmark, . Ims, . Bms, . Roche et al., GSK and has a consultant or advisory board relationship with Novartis, were supported by the NORFAR program, the Academic Research Office of the Chief Scientist, Ministry of Economy, Israel and collaborated with improdia.co.il. H.S. reports honoraria for teaching, consultancy and advisory boards from BMS, Roche, Merck and Novartis. J.S.W. receives travel grants from and participated to scientific advisory boards of BMS, and EMD Serono. A.M. received consulting honoraria from Roche Astra-Zeneca and participated to scientific advisory boards of Roche The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests

A. Doi,

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, Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use

, The Author(s), p.2017

N. Jacquelot and A. C. Anderson, Kwek 11 , C. Flament 1,2,3,5 , M. Messaoudene 1,3 , C.P.M. Duong 1,3 Smyth 43,44 , J.S. Weber 8 , A.M. Eggermont 3 & L. Zitvogel 1

I. U1015, G. Roussy-cancer, and . Campus, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus 9 Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev DK-2730, Denmark. 10 The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, BioMedical Research institute Israel Canada of the Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. 11 Division of Hematology/Oncology 12 Department of Immunobiology 15 Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases and Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, -94805, France. 7 Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM ERL 1157-CNRS UMR 7203 14 Section of Clinical Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology Medical Oncology and Immunotherapy Division, pp.1431-1451, 2019.

I. Biotherapy, C. U1232, and . Nantes, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany. 28 Division of Gene Therapy and Hepatology 34 Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah Medical Organization, Medical Oncology and Immunotherapy Pamplona 31008, Spain. 30 Centro de Investigación cBiomedica en Red de Oncologia, Pamplona 31008, Spain. 31 Department of Onco-dermatology 37 Equipe 11 labellisée par la Ligue contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers Immunology in Cancer and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute 4006, Australia. N. Jacquelot, M.P. Roberti and D.P. Enot contributed equally to this work, p.43

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