Transfert adoptif de lymphocytes T : Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes

Abstract : Within a few years, the success of treatments based on the use of T-cells armed with a chimeric T-receptor for the CD19 molecule (CAR-T CD19) has revolutionized the perception of adoptive transfer approaches. The levels of responses observed in acute leukemias, of the order of 70-90 % are indeed unprecedented. The medical and financial enthusiasm aroused by these results has led to the current situation where more than 300 clinical trials are under way, against some thirty different antigens. This enthusiasm, well justified by the first successes, must however be tempered by the difficulties associated with the use of these cells. Indeed, the management of patients is made very complex both for medical reasons, because the toxicities associated with these treatments are important, and for technical reasons, because the preparation of T lymphocytes for therapeutic use requires dedicated structures. During this same period, knowledge of the mechanisms of regulation of T lymphocytes and the possibilities offered by synthetic biology and techniques of genome engineering have progressed considerably. Combined, they allow envisaging a true "programming" of the T lymphocytes, intended to improve the efficiency of the treatments and the safety of the patients. Medical and industrial perspectives and the role of these approaches in the arsenal of cancer therapies will depend largely on two conditions: the emergence of a robust demonstration of their effectiveness in solid tumors, and the establishment of an acceptable production and distribution model 1.
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Henri Vié, Béatrice Clémenceau. Transfert adoptif de lymphocytes T : Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes. Transfusion Clinique et Biologique, Elsevier, 2017, 24 (3), pp.256 - 262. ⟨10.1016/j.tracli.2017.05.018⟩. ⟨inserm-01806932⟩

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