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Body mass index and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis based on nested case-control studies from four cohort studies

Abstract : Background. Obesity has been proposed as a potential protective factor against lung cancer. We examined the association between BMI and lung cancer risk in a pooled analysis based on nested case-control studies from four cohort studies. Methods. A case-control study was nested within four cohorts in USA, Europe, China and Singapore that included 4172 cases and 8471 control subjects. BMI at baseline was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2), and classified into 4 categories: underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obese (≥30). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI-lung cancer associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Results. Considering all participants, and using normal weight as the reference group, a decreased risk of lung cancer was observed for those who were overweight (OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68–0.86) and obese (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59–0.82). In the stratified analysis by smoking status, the decreased risk for lung cancer was observed among current, former and never smokers (P for interaction 0.002). The adjusted ORs for overweight and obese groups were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68–0.92) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60–0.93) for current smokers, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53–0.93) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37–0.80) for former smokers, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59–0.99), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.44–1.14) for never smokers, respectively. While no statistically significant association was observed for underweight subjects who were current smokers (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 0.98–1.58), former smokers (OR 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12–0.61) and never smokers (OR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.5.-1.28). Conclusion. The results of this study provide additional evidence that obesity is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer. Further biological studies are needed to address this association.
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Harinakshi Sanikini, Jian-Min Yuan, Lesley M. Butler, Woon-Puay Koh, Yu-Tang Gao, et al.. Body mass index and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis based on nested case-control studies from four cohort studies. BMC Cancer, BioMed Central, 2018, 18 (1), pp.220. ⟨10.1186/s12885-018-4124-0⟩. ⟨inserm-01716890⟩

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