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Non-invasive differentiation of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with cardiac involvement from acute viral myocarditis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging T1 and T2 mapping

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is a group of autoimmune diseases with systemic myositis which may involve the myocardium. Cardiac involvement in IIM, although often subclinical, may mimic clinical manifestations of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Our aim was to investigate the usefulness of the combined analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping parameters measured both in the myocardium and in the thoracic skeletal muscles to differentiate AVM from IIM cardiac involvement. METHODS: Sixty subjects were included in this retrospective study (36 male, age 45 ± 16 years): twenty patients with AVM, twenty patients with IIM and cardiac involvement and twenty healthy controls. Study participants underwent CMR imaging with modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping and 3-point balanced steady-state-free precession T2 mapping. Relaxation times were quantified after endocardial and epicardial delineation on basal and medial short-axis slices, as well as in different thoracic skeletal muscle groups present in the CMR field-of-view. ROC-Analysis was performed to assess the ability of mapping indices to discriminate the study groups. RESULTS: Mapping parameters in the thoracic skeletal muscles were able to discriminate between AVM and IIM patients. Best skeletal muscle parameters to identify IIM from AVM patients were reduced post-contrast T1 and increased extracellular volume (ECV), resulting in an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95 for post-contrast T1 and 0.96 for ECV. Conversely, myocardial mapping parameters did not discriminate IIM from AVM patients but increased native T1 (AUC 0.89 for AVM; 0.84 for IIM) and increased T2 (AUC 0.82 for AVM; 0.88 for IIM) could differentiate both patient groups from healthy controls. CONCLUSION: CMR myocardial mapping detects cardiac inflammation in AVM and IIM compared to normal myocardium in healthy controls but does not differentiate IIM from AVM. However, thoracic skeletal muscle mapping was able to accurately discern IIM from AVM.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-01711470
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Adrian T. Huber, Marine Bravetti, Jérôme Lamy, Tania Bacoyannis, Charles Roux, et al.. Non-invasive differentiation of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with cardiac involvement from acute viral myocarditis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging T1 and T2 mapping. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, BioMed Central, 2018, 20 (1), pp.11. ⟨10.1186/s12968-018-0430-6⟩. ⟨inserm-01711470⟩

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