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Bone regeneration strategies with bone marrow stromal cells in orthopaedic surgery

Abstract : Bone is the most transplanted tissue human with 1 million procedures every year in Europe. Surgical interventions for bone repair are required for varied reasons such as trauma resulting non-union fractures, or diseases including osteoporosis or osteonecrosis. Autologous bone grafting is the gold standard in bone regeneration but it requires a second surgery with associated pain and complications, and is also limited by harvested bone quantity. Synthetic bone substitutes lack the osteoinductive properties to heal large bone defects. Cell therapies based on bone marrow or ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) in association with synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP) bone substitutes may be alternatives to autologous bone grafting. This manuscript reviews the different conventional biological and synthetic bone grafting procedures as well as the more recently introduced cell therapy approaches used in orthopaedic surgery for bone regeneration. Some clinical studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of these approaches but regeneration of large bone defects remain challenging due to the absence of rapid and adequate vascularisation. Future directions in the field of bone regeneration are presented, such as testing alternative cell sources or in situ fabrication of vascularized bone grafts in patients.
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Julien Stanovici, Louis Romée Le Nail, Luciano Vidal, Meadhbh A Brennan, Valérie Trichet, et al.. Bone regeneration strategies with bone marrow stromal cells in orthopaedic surgery. Current Research in Translational Medicine, Elsevier-Masson SAS, 2016, 64 (2), pp.83 - 90. ⟨10.1016/j.retram.2016.04.006⟩. ⟨inserm-01702061⟩



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