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Pulsed Cavitational Ultrasound Softening: a new non-invasive therapeutic approach of calcified bioprosthetic valve stenosis 2 Brief Title: Non-invasive ultrasound therapy of calcified bioprosthesis 3 4

Abstract : Background. The majority of prosthetic heart valves currently implanted are tissue valves that can be expected to calcify with time and eventually fail. Surgical or percutaneous redux valve replacement is associated with higher rate of complications. We propose a novel non-invasive therapeutic approach based on the use of pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU) to improve the valvular function of degenerative calcified bioprosthesis. Objectives. Our study aims to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo on an ovine model that PCU can significantly improve the bioprosthesis opening by softening remotely the calcified stiff cusps. Methods. All the experiments were performed on calcified bioprosthetic valves explanted from human patients. PCU was performed in vitro on calcified bioprosthesis mounted on a hydraulic bench with pulsatile flow (n=8) and in vivo on an ovine model with implanted calcified bioprosthesis (n=7). We used 3D echocardiography, pressure and flow sensors, quantitative stiffness evaluation using shear wave elastography, micro-CT imaging and histology to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effect of PCU. Results. The transvalvular gradient was found to decrease by a mean of 50% after PCU in both in vitro (from 21.1±3.9 to 9.6±1.7 mmHg, p<0.01) and in vivo setup (from 16.2±3.2 to 8.2±1.3 mmHg, p<0.01), with a decrease of valve stiffness (in vitro: from 105.8±9 to 46.6±4 kPa, p<0.01; in vivo: from 82.6±10 to 41.7±7 kPa, p<0.01) and an increase of valve area (from 1.10±0.1 to 1.58±0.1 cm2, p<0.01). Histology and micro-CT imaging showed modifications of calcification structure without loss of calcification volume or alteration of the leaflet superficial structures. Conclusions. We have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that PCU can decrease a calcified bioprosthesis stenosis by softening the leaflets remotely. This new non-invasive approach has the potential to improve the outcome of patients with severe bioprosthesis stenosis.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 4, 2018 - 6:31:23 PM
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Olivier Villemain, Justine Robin, Alain Bel, Wojciech Kwiecinski, Patrick Bruneval, et al.. Pulsed Cavitational Ultrasound Softening: a new non-invasive therapeutic approach of calcified bioprosthetic valve stenosis 2 Brief Title: Non-invasive ultrasound therapy of calcified bioprosthesis 3 4. JACC : Basic to Translational Science, Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation, 2017, 2 (4), pp.372 - 383. ⟨10.1016/j.jacbts.2017.03.012⟩. ⟨inserm-01675757⟩

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