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Evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Silent Brain Infarcts in Preoperative and Postoperative Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery.

Abstract : Background - To report the prevalence of silent brain infarcts (SBI) at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after surgery for asymptomatic high grade carotid stenosis. Methods - This is a single center retrospective observational study. Asymptomatic patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy between October 2012 and October 2014 were included. The preoperative assessment included a Doppler and a computed tomographic (CT) scan dating less than 3 months. A neurological examination was performed during the anesthesia consultation and in the 15 days before surgery. An MRI angiography was performed the day before and 3 days after surgery and was analyzed by an independent neuroradiologist. Preoperative analysis focused on the presence of ischemic events at MRI. The type of plaque, the supra aortic trunk lesions, and the quality of the circle of Willis were analyzed using Doppler and CT scanning. Postoperatively, we searched for signs of postoperative ischemic events at MRI. Results - Forty-one patients were included (85.4% of men), and the mean age was 72.4 ± 8.3 years. We noted 7 (17.1%) contralateral stenoses (>50%) and 2 (4.9%) contralateral thromboses, 6 (14.6%) vertebral stenoses, and 7 (17.1%) abnormalities of the circle of Willis. The morphological analysis described 6 unstable plaques including 4 ulcerated, 1 pseudodissection, and 1 intraplaque hemorrhage. Preoperatively, we noted the presence of 21 (51.2%) ischemic lesions including 9 (21.9%) multiple lacunar ischemic events and 12 (29.3%) silent arterial territory infarcts. Eversion was performed for all patients except for 6 (14.6%), for whom a bypass was necessary. No deaths or major complications were observed in the 30 postoperative days. Postoperatively, MRI showed 3 (7.3%) asymptomatic recent ischemic strokes, 1 ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke, and 2 contralateral (cerebellar and MCA) strokes. Conclusions - Patients with asymptomatic significant carotid stenosis show many preoperative SBI indicating a significant embolic risk. It is difficult to conclude about intraoperative embolic risk, but we hope that more data could demonstrate the importance of MRI for the preoperative evaluation of carotid plaques and brain parenchyma, to identify high-risk embolic patients.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - 12:01:16 PM
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Remy Pascot, Anne Daoudal, Alain Cardon, Gilles Godet, Antoine Lucas, et al.. Evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Silent Brain Infarcts in Preoperative and Postoperative Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery.. Annals of Vascular Surgery, Elsevier Masson, 2017, 43, pp.258-264. ⟨10.1016/j.avsg.2016.10.067⟩. ⟨inserm-01576504⟩