Overview of carotenoid bioavailability determinants: From dietary factors to host genetic variations: Carotenoid bioavailability determinants

Abstract : Carotenoids are C-30 or C-40 based pigments with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, some possessing vitamin A activity. Their dietary intake, especially within fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and several types of cancer. However, their bioavailability is wide ranging and is affected by numerous factors. Recent findings showing that the intestinal absorption of carotenoids involves proteins have raised new relevant questions about factors that can affect their bioavailability. It is therefore opportune to present a current overview of this topic.Scope and approach: This review begins by exploring what is known, as well as what is unknown, about the metabolism of carotenoids in the human upper gastrointestinal tract and then presents a methodical evaluation of factors assumed to affect carotenoid bioavailability. Key findings and conclusions : Numerous unanswered questions remain about the metabolism of carotenoids in the intestinal lumen and about the factors affecting their absorption efficiency. These gaps need to be filled to be able to better understand individual, variable responses to these compounds so as to promote guidelines towards personalized dietary recommendation in order to increase carotenoid absorption efficiency and hence their health effects. Two main conclusions can be drawn. First, the efficiency of carotenoid absorption is affected by several dietary factors (e.g. food matrix, fat, and fat-soluble micronutrients). Second, carotenoid bioavailability also depends on host-related factors, e.g. diseases, life-style habits, gender and age, as well as genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms.
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Trends in Food Science and Technology, Elsevier, 2017, Epub ahead of print. 〈10.1016/j.tifs.2017.03.002〉
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Charles Desmarchelier, Patrick Borel. Overview of carotenoid bioavailability determinants: From dietary factors to host genetic variations: Carotenoid bioavailability determinants. Trends in Food Science and Technology, Elsevier, 2017, Epub ahead of print. 〈10.1016/j.tifs.2017.03.002〉. 〈inserm-01499484〉

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