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Vitamin D Bioavailability: State of the Art

Abstract : There has been renewed interest in vitamin D since numerous recent studies have suggested that besides its well-established roles in bone metabolism and immunity, vitamin D status is inversely associated with the incidence of several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is very little data on factors that affect absorption of this fat-soluble vitamin, although it is acknowledged that dietary vitamin D could help to fight against the sub-deficient vitamin D status that is common in several populations. This review describes the state of the art concerning the fate of vitamin D in the human upper gastrointestinal tract and on the factors assumed to affect its absorption efficiency. The main conclusions are: (i) ergocalciferol (vitamin D-2), the form mostly used in supplements and fortified foods, is apparently absorbed with similar efficiency to cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3, the main dietary form), (ii) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), the metabolite produced in the liver, and which can be found in foods, is better absorbed than the nonhydroxy vitamin D forms cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol, (iii) the amount of fat with which vitamin D is ingested does not seem to significantly modify the bioavailability of vitamin D-3, (iv) the food matrix has apparently little effect on vitamin D bioavailability, (v) sucrose polyesters (Olestra) and tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat) probably diminish vitamin D absorption, and (vi) there is apparently no effect of aging on vitamin D absorption efficiency. We also find that there is insufficient, or even no data on the following factors suspected of affecting vitamin D bioavailability: (i) effect of type and amount of dietary fiber, (ii) effect of vitamin D status, and (iii) effect of genetic variation in proteins involved in its intestinal absorption. In conclusion, further studies are needed to improve our knowledge of factors affecting vitamin D absorption efficiency. Clinical studies with labeled vitamin D, e.g., deuterated or C-13, are needed to accurately and definitively assess the effect of various factors on its bioavailability.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-01478467
Contributor : Patrick Borel <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, February 28, 2017 - 10:46:42 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 27, 2020 - 1:12:18 PM

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P. Borel, D. Caillaud, N. J. Cano. Vitamin D Bioavailability: State of the Art. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Taylor & Francis, 2015, 55 (9), pp.1193 - 1205. ⟨10.1080/10408398.2012.688897⟩. ⟨inserm-01478467⟩

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