E. Sabuncu, J. David, C. Bernède-bauduin, S. Pépin, M. Leroy et al., Significant reduction of antibiotic use in the community after a nationwide campaign in France, PLoS Med, vol.6, pp.2002-2009, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00700534

L. Dortet, M. Ploy, C. Poyart, and R. J. , Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae of serotype 19A in France: molecular capsular serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and epidemiology, Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol.65, issue.1, pp.49-57, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2009.05.009

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00533125

A. Lepoutre, E. Varon, S. Georges, L. Gutmann, and D. Lévy-bruhl, Infant pneumococcal vaccination on invasive pneumococcal diseases in France, Euro Surveill, vol.13, pp.367-72, 2001.

M. Domenech-de-cellès, M. Pons-salort, E. Varon, M. Vibet, C. Ligier et al., Interaction of Vaccination and Reduction of Antibiotic Use Drives Unexpected Increase of Pneumococcal Meningitis, Scientific Reports, vol.25, p.11293, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/srep11293

M. Van-der-linden, G. Falkenhorst, S. Perniciaro, and M. Imöhl, Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany, PLOS ONE, vol.9, issue.6, p.131494, 2015.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0131494.s002

J. Meichtry, R. Born, M. Küffer, M. Zwahlen, W. Albrich et al., Serotype epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Swiss adults: A nationwide population-based study, Vaccine, vol.32, issue.40, pp.5185-91, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.060

E. Miller, N. Andrews, P. Waight, M. Slack, and R. George, Herd immunity and serotype replacement 4 years after seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales: an observational cohort study, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.11, issue.10, pp.760-768, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70090-1

M. Guevara, A. Barricarte, A. Gil-setas, J. García-irure, X. Beristain et al., Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease following increased coverage with the heptavalent conjugate vaccine in Navarre, Spain, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.15, issue.11, pp.1013-1022, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02904.x

M. Kyaw, R. Lynfield, W. Schaffner, A. Craig, J. Hadler et al., Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drugresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, N Engl J Med, vol.14, pp.1455-63, 2006.

D. Feikin, E. Kagucia, J. Loo, R. Link-gelles, M. Puhan et al., Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites, PLoS Medicine, vol.18, issue.9, p.1001517, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001517.s022

T. Pilishvili, C. Lexau, M. Farley, J. Hadler, L. Harrison et al., Sustained Reductions in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Conjugate Vaccine, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.201, issue.1, pp.32-41, 2010.
DOI : 10.1086/648593

C. Whitney, M. Farley, J. Hadler, L. Harrison, N. Bennett et al., Decline in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after the Introduction of Protein???Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.348, issue.18, pp.1737-1783, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa022823

J. Estrada, M. Najera, N. Pounds, G. Catano, and A. Infante, Clinical and Serologic Response to the 23-valent Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Vaccine in Children and Teens with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Selective Antibody Deficiency, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.35, issue.2, pp.205-213, 2016.
DOI : 10.1097/INF.0000000000000964

A. Ginsburg and M. Alderson, New conjugate vaccines for the prevention of pneumococcal disease in developing countries, Drugs of Today, vol.47, issue.3, pp.207-221, 2011.
DOI : 10.1358/dot.2011.47.3.1556471

A. Lepoutre, E. Varon, S. Georges, F. Dorléans, C. Janoir et al., Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease in France, 2001???2012, Vaccine, vol.33, issue.2, pp.359-66, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.11.011

J. Mccullers, J. Mcauley, S. Browall, A. Iverson, K. Boyd et al., in Ferrets, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.202, issue.8, pp.1287-95, 2010.
DOI : 10.1086/656333

L. Opatowski, E. Varon, C. Dupont, L. Temime, S. Van-der-werf et al., Assessing pneumococcal meningitis association with viral respiratory infections and antibiotics: insights from statistical and mathematical models, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.16, issue.2, p.20130519, 2013.
DOI : 10.3851/IMP1730

A. Bernier, C. Ligier, D. Guillemot, and L. Watier, Did Media Attention of the 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Epidemic Increase Outpatient Antibiotic Use in France?: A Time-Series Analysis, PLoS ONE, vol.55, issue.7, p.69075, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0069075.s003

A. Chapoutot, R. Dessein, O. Guilluy, M. Lagrée, F. Wallet et al., SUMMARY, Epidemiology and Infection, vol.144, issue.03, pp.607-618, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(04)00938-7

C. Lexau, R. Lynfield, R. Danila, T. Pilishvili, R. Facklam et al., Changing Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among Older Adults in the Era of Pediatric Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, JAMA, vol.294, issue.16, pp.2043-51, 2005.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.294.16.2043

H. Hsu, K. Shutt, M. Moore, B. Beall, N. Bennett et al., Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pneumococcal Meningitis, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.360, issue.3, pp.244-56, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa0800836

M. Moore, R. Link-gelles, W. Schaffner, R. Lynfield, C. Lexau et al., Effect of use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children on invasive pneumococcal disease in children and adults in the USA: analysis of multisite, population-based surveillance, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.15, issue.3, pp.301-310, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)71081-3

A. Steens, R. Bergsaker, M. Aaberge, I. Rønning, K. Vestrheim et al., Prompt effect of replacing the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the 13-valent vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Norway, Vaccine, vol.31, issue.52, pp.6232-6240, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.032

Z. Harboe, T. Dalby, D. Weinberger, T. Benfield, K. Mølbak et al., Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.59, issue.8, pp.1066-73, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/ciu524

A. Bernier, E. Delarocque-astagneau, C. Ligier, M. Vibet, D. Guillemot et al., Outpatient Antibiotic Use in France between 2000 and 2010: after the Nationwide Campaign, It Is Time To Focus on the Elderly, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.58, issue.1, pp.71-78, 2014.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01813-13

L. Olarte, W. Barson, R. Barson, P. Lin, J. Romero et al., Impact of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pneumococcal Meningitis in US Children, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.61, issue.5, pp.767-75, 2015.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/civ368

R. Reinert, M. Jacobs, and S. Kaplan, Pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 19A: Review of the literature and implications for future vaccine development, Vaccine, vol.28, issue.26, pp.4249-59, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.020

C. Godot, C. Levy, E. Varon, C. Picard, F. Madhi et al., Pneumococcal Meningitis Vaccine Breakthroughs and Failures After Routine 7-Valent and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children in France, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.34, issue.10, pp.260-263, 2015.
DOI : 10.1097/INF.0000000000000818

K. Bryant, S. Block, S. Baker, W. Gruber, and D. Scott, Safety and Immunogenicity of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, PEDIATRICS, vol.125, issue.5, pp.866-75, 2010.
DOI : 10.1542/peds.2009-1405

P. Waight, N. Andrews, S. Ladhani, C. Sheppard, M. Slack et al., Effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales 4 years after its introduction: an observational cohort study, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.15, issue.5, pp.535-578, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70044-7

M. Guevara, C. Ezpeleta, A. Gil-setas, L. Torroba, X. Beristain et al., Reduced incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease after introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in Navarre, Spain, 2001???2013, Vaccine, vol.32, issue.22, pp.2553-62, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.054

N. Grall, O. Hurmic, A. Nakib, M. Longo, M. Poyart et al., Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae in France before introduction of the PCV-13 vaccine, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.14, issue.12, pp.1511-1520, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s10096-011-1251-9

C. Levy, E. Varon, C. Picard, S. Béchet, A. Martinot et al., Trends of Pneumococcal Meningitis in Children After Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in France, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol.33, issue.12, pp.1216-1237, 2014.
DOI : 10.1097/INF.0000000000000451

N. Chiba, M. Morozumi, K. Sunaoshi, S. Takahashi, M. Takano et al., Serotype and antibiotic resistance of isolates from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in Japan, Epidemiology and Infection, vol.57, issue.01, pp.61-69, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(86)90215-5

A. Rakov, K. Ubukata, and D. Robinson, Population structure of hyperinvasive serotype 12F, clonal complex 218 Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed by multilocus boxB sequence typing, Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol.11, issue.8, pp.1929-1968, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.meegid.2011.08.016

E. Schillberg, M. Isaac, X. Deng, G. Peirano, J. Wylie et al., Outbreak of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 12F Among a Marginalized Inner-City Population in Winnipeg, Canada, 2009-2011, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.59, issue.5, pp.651-658, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/ciu366

M. Antonio, H. Dada-adegbola, E. Biney, T. Awine, O. Callaghan et al., Molecular epidemiology of pneumococci obtained from Gambian children aged 2???29 months with invasive pneumococcal disease during a trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.5, issue.1, p.81, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb02155.x

E. Varon, R. Cohen, S. Béchet, C. Doit, and C. Levy, Invasive disease potential of pneumococci before and after the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in children, Vaccine, vol.33, issue.46, pp.6178-85, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.015

M. Tin-tin-htar, D. Christopoulou, and H. Schmitt, Pneumococcal serotype evolution in Western Europe, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.34, issue.4, p.419, 2015.
DOI : 10.1186/s12879-015-1147-x

D. Cooper, X. Yu, M. Sidhu, M. Nahm, P. Fernsten et al., The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses in humans to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 7A, Vaccine, vol.29, issue.41, pp.7207-7218, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.056

C. Janoir, R. Cohen, C. Levy, E. Bingen, A. Lepoutre et al., Clonal Expansion of the Macrolide Resistant ST386 within Pneumococcal Serotype 6C in France, PLoS ONE, vol.57, issue.3, p.90935, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0090935.t005

M. Lipsitch, O. Abdullahi, A. Amour, W. Xie, M. Daniel et al., Estimating Rates of Carriage Acquisition and Clearance and Competitive Ability for Pneumococcal Serotypes in Kenya With a Markov Transition Model, Epidemiology, vol.23, issue.4, pp.510-519, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31824f2f32

Z. Harboe, T. Benfield, P. Valentiner-branth, T. Hjuler, L. Lambertsen et al., Temporal Trends in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Pneumococcal Serotypes over 7 Decades, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.50, issue.3, pp.329-366, 2010.
DOI : 10.1086/649872

URL : http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/50/3/329

M. Maher, W. Alemayehu, T. Lakew, B. Gaynor, S. Haug et al., The Fitness Cost of Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: Insight from the Field, PLoS ONE, vol.49, issue.10, p.29407, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0029407.s001