P. Cassier, F. Ducimetière, A. Lurkin, D. Ranchère-vince, J. Scoazec et al., A prospective epidemiological study of new incident GISTs during two consecutive years in Rh??ne Alpes region: incidence and molecular distribution of GIST in a European region, British Journal of Cancer, vol.25, issue.2, pp.165-170, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.20862

S. Hirota, K. Isozaki, Y. Moriyama, K. Hashimoto, T. Nishida et al., Gain-of-Function Mutations of c-kit in Human Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Science, vol.279, issue.5350, pp.577-580, 1998.
DOI : 10.1126/science.279.5350.577

M. Heinrich, C. Corless, A. Duensing, L. Mcgreevey, C. Chen et al., PDGFRA Activating Mutations in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Science, vol.299, issue.5607, pp.708-710, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1079666

B. Rubin, M. Heinrich, and C. Corless, Gastrointestinal stromal tumour, The Lancet, vol.369, issue.9574, pp.1731-1741, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60780-6

J. Emile, S. Brahimi, J. Coindre, P. Bringuier, G. Monges et al., Frequencies of KIT and PDGFRA mutations in the MolecGIST prospective population-based study differ from those of advanced GISTs, Medical Oncology, vol.19, issue.3, pp.1765-1772, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s12032-011-0074-y

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00636301

G. Demetri, M. Von-mehren, C. Blanke, A. Van-den-abbeele, B. Eisenberg et al., Efficacy and Safety of Imatinib Mesylate in Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.347, issue.7, pp.472-480, 2002.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa020461

R. Dematteo, K. Ballman, C. Antonescu, R. Maki, P. Pisters et al., Adjuvant imatinib mesylate after resection of localised, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, The Lancet, vol.373, issue.9669, pp.1097-1104, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60500-6

M. Debiec-rychter, R. Sciot, L. Cesne, A. Schlemmer, M. Hohenberger et al., KIT mutations and dose selection for imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, European Journal of Cancer, vol.42, issue.8, pp.1093-1103, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.01.030

J. Fletcher, Role of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptors as oncoproteins, Seminars in Oncology, vol.31, pp.4-11, 2004.
DOI : 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2004.03.034

C. Corless, L. Mcgreevey, A. Haley, A. Town, and M. Heinrich, KIT Mutations Are Common in Incidental Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors One Centimeter or Less in Size, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.160, issue.5, pp.1567-1572, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61103-0

J. Bachet, B. Landi, P. Laurent-puig, A. Italiano, L. Cesne et al., Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and germline mutation of KIT exon 13, European Journal of Cancer, vol.49, issue.11, pp.2531-2541, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.04.005

W. El-rifai, M. Sarlomo-rikala, M. Miettinen, S. Knuutila, and L. Andersson, DNA copy number losses in chromosome 14: an early change in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Cancer Res, vol.56, pp.3230-3233, 1996.

N. Kim, J. Kim, J. Ahn, C. Seong, S. Noh et al., Putative chromosomal deletions on 9p, 9q and 22q occur preferentially in malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors, International Journal of Cancer, vol.244, issue.5, pp.633-638, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000301)85:5<633::AID-IJC6>3.0.CO;2-5

W. El-rifai, M. Sarlomo-rikala, L. Andersson, M. Miettinen, and S. Knuutila, High-resolution deletion mapping of chromosome 14 in stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract suggests two distinct tumor suppressor loci, Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, vol.19, issue.4, pp.387-391, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2264(200004)27:4<387::AID-GCC8>3.0.CO;2-C

J. Breiner, J. Meis-kindblom, L. Kindblom, E. Mccomb, J. Liu et al., Loss of 14q and 22q in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (Pacemaker Cell Tumors), Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol.120, issue.2, pp.111-116, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-4608(00)00212-0

W. El-rifai, M. Sarlomo-rikala, L. Andersson, S. Knuutila, and M. Miettinen, DNA sequence copy number changes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: tumor progression and prognostic significance, Cancer Res, vol.60, pp.3899-3903, 2000.

J. Derré, R. Lagacé, P. Terrier, and X. Sastre, Consistent DNA losses on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a series of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol.127, issue.1, pp.30-33, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-4608(00)00409-X

B. Gunawan, A. Von-heydebreck, B. Sander, H. Schulten, F. Haller et al., An oncogenetic tree model in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) identifies different pathways of cytogenetic evolution with prognostic implications, The Journal of Pathology, vol.5, issue.4, pp.463-470, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/path.2128

Y. Chen, C. Liou, H. Tseng, Y. Jan, C. Li et al., Deletions of Chromosome 1p and 15q are Associated with Aggressiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol.108, issue.1, pp.28-37, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60029-2

M. Silva, I. Veiga, F. Ribeiro, J. Vieira, C. Pinto et al., Chromosome copy number changes carry prognostic information independent of KIT/PDGFRA point mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, BMC Medicine, vol.46, issue.1, p.26, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/gcc.20408

H. Yamamoto, K. Kohashi, M. Tsuneyoshi, and Y. Oda, Heterozygosity Loss at 22q and Lack of INI1 Gene Mutation in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor, Pathobiology, vol.78, issue.3, pp.132-139, 2011.
DOI : 10.1159/000323564

N. Théou, S. Tabone, R. Saffroy, L. Cesne, A. Julié et al., High expression of both mutant and wild-type alleles of c-kit in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, vol.1688, issue.3, pp.250-256, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbadis.2003.12.011

J. Emile, J. Bachet, S. Tabone-eglinger, P. Terrier, and J. Vignault, GIST with homozygous KIT exon 11 mutations, Laboratory Investigation, vol.1688, issue.5, pp.456-457, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/00000478-200604000-00008

S. Brahimi-adouane, J. Bachet, S. Tabone-eglinger, F. Subra, C. Capron et al., Effects of endoplasmic reticulum stressors on maturation and signaling of??hemizygous and heterozygous wild-type and mutant forms of KIT, Molecular Oncology, vol.116, issue.3, pp.323-333, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molonc.2012.10.008

J. Bachet, S. Tabone-eglinger, S. Dessaux, A. Besse, S. Brahimi-adouane et al., Gene Expression Patterns of Hemizygous and Heterozygous KIT Mutations Suggest Distinct Oncogenic Pathways: A Study in NIH3T3 Cell Lines and GIST Samples, PLoS ONE, vol.26, issue.4, p.61103, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0061103.t003

J. Lasota, A. Dobosz, B. Wasag, A. Wozniak, E. Kraszewska et al., Presence of homozygous KIT exon 11 mutations is strongly associated with malignant clinical behavior in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Laboratory Investigation, vol.1741, issue.10, pp.1029-1041, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/labinvest.3700628

F. Bergmann, B. Gunawan, B. Hermanns, J. Höer, V. Schumpelick et al., Cytogenetic and morphologic characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Recurrent rearrangement of chromosome 1 and losses of chromosomes 14 and 22 as common anomalies, Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol, vol.82, pp.275-278, 1998.

A. Wozniak, R. Sciot, L. Guillou, P. Pauwels, B. Wasag et al., Array CGH analysis in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Cytogenetic profile correlates with anatomic site and tumor aggressiveness, irrespective of mutational status, Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, vol.53, issue.3, pp.261-276, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/gcc.20408

M. Belinsky, Y. Skorobogatko, L. Rink, P. J. Cai, K. Vanderveer et al., High density DNA array analysis reveals distinct genomic profiles in a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, vol.46, issue.2 Part 1, pp.886-896, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/gcc.20689

P. Lagarde, G. Pérot, A. Kauffmann, C. Brulard, V. Dapremont et al., Mitotic Checkpoints and Chromosome Instability Are Strong Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.18, issue.3, pp.826-838, 2012.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1610

E. Engel, A new genetic concept: Uniparental disomy and its potential effect, isodisomy, American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol.38, issue.2, pp.137-143, 1980.
DOI : 10.1002/ajmg.1320060207

M. Mascari, W. Gottlieb, P. Rogan, M. Butler, D. Waller et al., The Frequency of Uniparental Disomy in Prader-Willi Syndrome, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.326, issue.24, pp.1599-1607, 1992.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM199206113262404

S. Murthy, L. Difrancesco, R. Ogilvie, and D. Demetrick, Loss of Heterozygosity Associated with Uniparental Disomy in Breast Carcinoma, Modern Pathology, vol.15, issue.12, pp.1241-1250, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/01.MP.0000032535.62750.D1

M. Raghavan, D. Lillington, S. Skoulakis, S. Debernardi, T. Chaplin et al., Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis reveals frequent partial uniparental disomy due to somatic recombination in acute myeloid leukemias, Cancer Res, vol.65, pp.375-378, 2005.

A. Halldórsdóttir, B. Sander, H. Göransson, A. Isaksson, E. Kimby et al., High-resolution genomic screening in mantle cell lymphoma-specific changes correlate with genomic complexity, the proliferation signature and survival, Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, vol.144, issue.2, pp.113-121, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/gcc.20836

O. Shea, D. O-'riain, C. Gupta, M. Waters, R. Yang et al., Regions of acquired uniparental disomy at diagnosis of follicular lymphoma are associated with both overall survival and risk of transformation, Blood, vol.113, issue.10, pp.2298-2301, 2009.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-08-174953

L. Chen, J. Holden, H. Choi, J. Zhu, E. Wu et al., Evolution from heterozygous to homozygous KIT mutation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor correlates with the mechanism of mitotic nondisjunction and significant tumor progression, Modern Pathology, vol.14, issue.7, pp.826-836, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/modpathol.2008.46

H. Kikuchi, M. Yamamoto, Y. Hiramatsu, M. Baba, M. Ohta et al., Effect of loss of heterozygosity of the c-kit gene on prognosis after hepatectomy for metastatic liver gastrointestinal stromal tumors, Cancer Science, vol.12, issue.11, pp.1734-1739, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/jjco/hyi227

M. Tuna, M. Smid, J. Martens, and J. Foekens, Prognostic value of acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) in primary breast cancer, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol.347, issue.25, pp.189-196, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10549-011-1579-y

S. Murayama-hosokawa, K. Oda, S. Nakagawa, S. Ishikawa, S. Yamamoto et al., Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in endometrial carcinomas associate extensive chromosomal instability with poor prognosis and unveil frequent chromosomal imbalances involved in the PI3-kinase pathway, Oncogene, vol.319, issue.13, pp.1897-1908, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.onc.1206421

H. Darbary, S. Dutt, S. Sait, N. Nowak, R. Heinaman et al., Uniparentalism in sporadic colorectal cancer is independent of imprint status, and coordinate for chromosomes 14 and 18, Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol.189, issue.2, pp.77-86, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2008.10.011

P. Van-loo, S. Nordgard, O. Lingjaerde, H. Russnes, I. Rye et al., Allele-specific copy number analysis of tumors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.39, pp.16910-16915, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1009843107

H. Makishima and J. Maciejewski, Pathogenesis and Consequences of Uniparental Disomy in Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.17, issue.12, pp.3913-3923, 2011.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2900

M. Raghavan, L. Smith, D. Lillington, T. Chaplin, I. Kakkas et al., Segmental uniparental disomy is a commonly acquired genetic event in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia, Blood, vol.112, issue.3, pp.814-821, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-01-132431

M. Tuna, Z. Ju, C. Amos, and G. Mills, Soft tissue sarcoma subtypes exhibit distinct patterns of acquired uniparental disomy, BMC Medical Genomics, vol.9, issue.7, p.60, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s12094-007-0079-3

R. Kralovics, F. Passamonti, A. Buser, S. Teo, R. Tiedt et al., in Myeloproliferative Disorders, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.352, issue.17, pp.1779-1790, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa051113

R. Melcher, E. Hartmann, W. Zopf, S. Herterich, P. Wilke et al., LOH and copy neutral LOH (cnLOH) act as alternative mechanism in sporadic colorectal cancers with chromosomal and microsatellite instability, Carcinogenesis, vol.32, issue.4, pp.636-642, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/carcin/bgr011

S. Whitman, K. Archer, L. Feng, C. Baldus, B. Becknell et al., Absence of the wild-type allele predicts poor prognosis in adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics and the internal tandem duplication of FLT3: a cancer and leukemia groupe B study, Cancer Res, vol.61, pp.7233-7739, 2001.

J. Emile, A. Lemoine, N. Bienfait, P. Terrier, D. Azoulay et al., Length Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction Products: A Sensitive and Reliable Technique for the Detection of Mutations in KIT Exon 11 in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, vol.11, issue.2, pp.107-112, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00019606-200206000-00007

D. Peiffer, J. Le, F. Steemers, W. Chang, T. Jenniges et al., High-resolution genomic profiling of chromosomal aberrations using Infinium whole-genome genotyping, Genome Research, vol.16, issue.9, pp.1136-1148, 2006.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.5402306

J. Staaf, J. Vallon-christersson, D. Lindgren, G. Juliusson, R. Rosenquist et al., Normalization of Illumina Infinium whole-genome SNP data improves copy number estimates and allelic intensity ratios, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.9, issue.1, p.409, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-9-409

T. Popova, E. Manié, D. Stoppa-lyonnet, G. Rigaill, E. Barillot et al., Genome Alteration Print (GAP): a tool to visualize and mine complex cancer genomic profiles obtained by SNP arrays, Genome Biology, vol.10, issue.11, p.128, 2009.
DOI : 10.1186/gb-2009-10-11-r128

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00663915

F. Jardin, J. Picquenot, F. Parmentier, P. Ruminy, M. Cornic et al., Detection of gene copy number aberrations in mantle cell lymphoma by a single quantitative multiplex PCR assay: clinicopathological relevance and prognosis value, British Journal of Haematology, vol.64, issue.6, pp.607-618, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07791.x