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iNKT and MAIT cell alterations in diabetes

Abstract : Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are multifactorial diseases with different etiologies in which chronic inflammation takes place. Defects in invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell populations have been reported in both T1D and T2D patients, mouse models and our recent study revealed mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell defects in T2D and obese patients. Regarding iNKT cells many studies in non-obese diabetic mice demonstrated their protective role against T1D whereas their potential role in human T1D is still under debate. Studies in mouse models and patients suggest that iNKT cells present in adipose tissue (AT) could exert a regulatory role against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as T2D. Scarce data are yet available on MAIT cells; however, we recently described MAIT cell abnormalities in the blood and ATs from obese and T2D patients. These data show that a link between MAIT cells and metabolic disorders pave the way for further investigations on MAIT cells in T1D and T2D in humans and mouse models. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the gut microbiota alterations associated with T1D and T2D could modulate iNKT and MAIT cell frequency and functions. The potential role of iNKT and MAIT cells in the regulation of metabolic pathways and their cross-talk with microbiota represent exciting new lines of research.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 31, 2015 - 11:30:48 AM
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Isabelle Magalhaes, Badr Kiaf, Agnès Lehuen. iNKT and MAIT cell alterations in diabetes. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2015, pp.341. ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2015.00341⟩. ⟨inserm-01182374⟩

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