Y. Stern, What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol.8, issue.03, pp.448-460, 2002.
DOI : 10.1017/S1355617702813248

L. Whalley, I. Deary, C. Appleton, and J. Starr, Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging, Ageing Research Reviews, vol.3, issue.4, pp.369-382, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001

L. Fratiglioni and H. Wang, Brain reserve hypothesis in dementia, J Alzheimers Dis, vol.12, pp.11-22, 2007.

D. Bennett, R. Wilson, and J. Schneider, Education modifies the relation of AD pathology to level of cognitive function in older persons, Neurology, vol.60, issue.12, pp.1909-1915, 2003.
DOI : 10.1212/01.WNL.0000069923.64550.9F

X. Meng, D. Arcy, and C. , Education and Dementia in the Context of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses and Qualitative Analyses, PLoS ONE, vol.341, issue.6, p.38268, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0038268.s002

M. Prince, D. Acosta, and C. Ferri, Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study, The Lancet, vol.380, issue.9836, pp.50-58, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60399-7

A. Tucker and Y. Stern, Cognitive Reserve in Aging, Current Alzheimer Research, vol.8, issue.4, pp.354-360, 2011.
DOI : 10.2174/156720511795745320

K. Yaffe, A. Weston, and N. Graff-radford, Association of Plasma ??-Amyloid Level and Cognitive Reserve With Subsequent Cognitive Decline, JAMA, vol.305, issue.3, pp.261-266, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2010.1995

K. Van-dijk, P. Van-gerven, V. Boxtel, M. Van-der-elst, W. Jolles et al., No protective effects of education during normal cognitive aging: Results from the 6-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study., Psychology and Aging, vol.23, issue.1, pp.119-130, 2008.
DOI : 10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.119

E. Tucker-drob, K. Johnson, and R. Jones, The cognitive reserve hypothesis: A longitudinal examination of age-associated declines in reasoning and processing speed., Developmental Psychology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.431-446, 2009.
DOI : 10.1037/a0014012

A. Singh-manoux, M. Marmot, M. Glymour, S. Sabia, M. Kivimaki et al., Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline?, Annals of Neurology, vol.106, issue.2, pp.296-304, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/ana.22391

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00598424

L. Zahodne, M. Glymour, and C. Sparks, Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol.54, issue.06, pp.1039-1046, 2011.
DOI : 10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.119

A. Soumaré, A. Elbaz, and Y. Zhu, White matter lesions volume and motor performances in the elderly, Annals of Neurology, vol.51, issue.6, pp.706-715, 2009.
DOI : 10.1002/ana.21674

J. Zheng, K. Delbaere, J. Close, P. Sachdev, and S. Lord, Impact of White Matter Lesions on Physical Functioning and Fall Risk in Older People: A Systematic Review, Stroke, vol.42, issue.7, pp.2086-2090, 2011.
DOI : 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.610360

E. Brunner, M. Shipley, and V. Spencer, Social Inequality in Walking Speed in Early Old Age in the Whitehall II Study, The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol.64, issue.10
DOI : 10.1093/gerona/glp078

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01160908

A. Coppin, L. Ferrucci, and F. Lauretani, Low Socioeconomic Status and Disability in Old Age: Evidence From the InChianti Study for the Mediating Role of Physiological Impairments, The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol.61, issue.1, pp.86-91, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/gerona/61.1.86

A. Russo, G. Onder, and M. Cesari, Lifetime occupation and physical function: a prospective cohort study on persons aged 80 years and older living in a community, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol.63, issue.7, pp.438-442, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/oem.2005.023549

T. Seeman, P. Charpentier, and L. Berkman, Predicting Changes in Physical Performance in a High-Functioning Elderly Cohort: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, Journal of Gerontology, vol.49, issue.3
DOI : 10.1093/geronj/49.3.M97

A. Buchman, P. Boyle, and R. Wilson, Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: the rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study, BMC Geriatrics, vol.68, issue.3, p.77, 2010.
DOI : 10.1097/01.psy.0000221371.43607.64

J. Ashburner, J. Cauley, P. Cawthon, K. Ensrud, M. Hochberg et al., Self-ratings of Health and Change in Walking Speed Over 2 Years: Results From the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.173, issue.8, pp.882-889, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwq445

3. Study and G. , Vascular factors and risk of dementia: design of the Three-City Study and baseline characteristics of the study population, Neuroepidemiology, vol.22, pp.316-325, 2003.

J. Dumurgier, A. Elbaz, C. Dufouil, B. Tavernier, and C. Tzourio, Hypertension and lower walking speed in the elderly: the Three-City study, Journal of Hypertension, vol.28, issue.7, pp.1506-1514, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328338bbec

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01165024

P. Maillard, N. Delcroix, and F. Crivello, An automated procedure for the assessment of white matter hyperintensities by multispectral (T1, T2, PD) MRI and an evaluation of its between-centre reproducibility based on two large community databases, Neuroradiology, vol.27, issue.Suppl 3, pp.31-42, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00234-007-0312-3

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00180711

S. Studenski, S. Perera, and K. Patel, Gait Speed and Survival in Older Adults, JAMA, vol.305, issue.1, pp.50-58, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2010.1923

Y. Stern, Cognitive reserve???, Neuropsychologia, vol.47, issue.10, pp.2015-2028, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00863749

?. Petrosini, L. , D. Bartolo, P. Foti, and F. , On whether the environmental enrichment may provide cognitive and brain reserves, Brain Research Reviews, vol.61, issue.2, pp.221-239, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.07.002

J. Steffener and Y. Stern, Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve in aging, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, vol.1822, issue.3, pp.467-473, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.012

A. Brickman, K. Siedlecki, and J. Muraskin, White matter hyperintensities and cognition: Testing the reserve hypothesis, Neurobiology of Aging, vol.32, issue.9, pp.1588-1598, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.10.013

J. Nithianantharajah and A. Hannan, The neurobiology of brain and cognitive reserve: Mental and physical activity as modulators of brain disorders, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.89, issue.4, pp.369-382, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.10.001

A. Karlamangla, D. Miller-martinez, C. Aneshensel, T. Seeman, R. Wight et al., Trajectories of Cognitive Function in Late Life in the United States: Demographic and Socioeconomic Predictors, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.170, issue.3, pp.331-342, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwp154

M. Glymour, C. Tzourio, and C. Dufouil, Is Cognitive Aging Predicted by One's Own or One's Parents' Educational Level? Results From the Three-City Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.175, issue.8, pp.750-759, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwr509

M. Minkler, E. Fuller-thomson, and J. Guralnik, Gradient of Disability across the Socioeconomic Spectrum in the United States, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.355, issue.7, pp.695-703, 2006.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMsa044316

A. Koster, H. Bosma, B. Van-groenou, and M. , Explanations of socioeconomic differences in changes in physical function in older adults: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, BMC Public Health, vol.12, issue.1, p.244, 2006.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1006580708223

S. Clouston, P. Brewster, and D. Kuh, The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts, Epidemiologic Reviews, vol.35, issue.1, pp.33-50, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/epirev/mxs004

K. Birnie, R. Martin, and J. Gallacher, Socio-economic disadvantage from childhood to adulthood and locomotor function in old age: a lifecourse analysis of the Boyd Orr and Caerphilly prospective studies, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol.65, issue.11, pp.1014-1023, 2011.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.2009.103648