The relationship between parenting dimensions and adult achievement: evidence from the Whitehall II Study.

Abstract : This article examines the association between three dimensions of perceived parenting--warmth, strictness, and expectation--and adult cognitive and socioeconomic achievement outcomes. Structural equation models (N = 7,035) were used to examine simultaneously the influence of parenting on adult achievement while controlling for the influence of parental socioeconomic circumstances. Very low and very high level of parental warmth was associated with poor adult achievement. Strictness had a negative and parental expectation a positive relationship with adult achievement. These associations were independent of parental socioeconomic circumstances. Own education was found to mediate 27-56% of the relationship between parenting dimensions and adult achievement. Parental expectation was most strongly related to adult achievement. We conclude that parenting plays a significant role in the development of adult achievement: both cognitive ability and socioeconomic achievement. Moderate levels of warmth, low levels of strictness, and high parental expectation are associated with high adult achievement.
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International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Springer Verlag, 2005, 13 (4), pp.320-9
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Archana Singh-Manoux, Peter Fonagy, Michael Marmot. The relationship between parenting dimensions and adult achievement: evidence from the Whitehall II Study.. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Springer Verlag, 2005, 13 (4), pp.320-9. 〈inserm-01155073〉

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