MRI quantification of diffusion and perfusion in bone marrow by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and non-negative least square (NNLS) analysis.: IVIM and NNLS in bone marrow

Abstract : OBJECT: To assess the feasibility of measuring diffusion and perfusion fraction in vertebral bone marrow using the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) approach and to compare two fitting methods, i.e., the non-negative least squares (NNLS) algorithm and the more commonly used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear least squares algorithm, for the analysis of IVIM data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI experiments were performed on fifteen healthy volunteers, with a diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence at five different b-values (0, 50, 100, 200, 600s/mm(2)), in combination with a STIR module to suppress the lipid signal. Diffusion signal decays in the first lumbar vertebra (L1) were fitted to a bi-exponential function using the LM algorithm and further analyzed with the NNLS algorithm to calculate the values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction. RESULTS: The NNLS analysis revealed two diffusion components only in seven out of fifteen volunteers, with ADC=0.60±0.09 (10(-3)mm(2)/s), D*=28±9 (10(-3)mm(2)/s) and perfusion fraction=14±6 %. The values obtained by the LM bi-exponential fit were: ADC=0.45±0.27 (10(-3)mm(2)/s), D*=63±145 (10(-3)mm(2)/s) and perfusion fraction=27±17 %. Furthermore, the LM algorithm yielded values of perfusion fraction in cases where the decay was not bi-exponential, as assessed by NNLS analysis. CONCLUSION: The IVIM approach allows for measuring diffusion and perfusion fraction in vertebral bone marrow; its reliability can be improved by using the NNLS, which identifies the diffusion decays that display a bi-exponential behaviour.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Elsevier, 2014, 32 (9), pp.1091-6. 〈10.1016/j.mri.2014.07.009〉
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Antoine Marchand, Eric Hitti, Frédéric Monge, Hervé Saint-Jalmes, Raphaël Guillin, et al.. MRI quantification of diffusion and perfusion in bone marrow by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and non-negative least square (NNLS) analysis.: IVIM and NNLS in bone marrow. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Elsevier, 2014, 32 (9), pp.1091-6. 〈10.1016/j.mri.2014.07.009〉. 〈inserm-01054534〉

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