Oxidative and pro-inflammatory impact of regular and denicotinized cigarettes on blood brain barrier endothelial cells: is smoking reduced or nicotine-free products really safe? - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles BMC Neuroscience Year : 2014

Oxidative and pro-inflammatory impact of regular and denicotinized cigarettes on blood brain barrier endothelial cells: is smoking reduced or nicotine-free products really safe?

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Pooja Naik
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 956263
Neel Fofaria
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 956264
Shikha Prasad
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 956265
Ravi Sajja
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 956266
Babette Weksler
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 908817
Pierre-Olivier Couraud
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 922210

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Both active and passive tobacco smoke (TS) potentially impair the vascular endothelial function in a causative and dose-dependent manner, largely related to the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and pro-inflammatory activity. Together these factors can compromise the restrictive properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and trigger the pathogenesis/progression of several neurological disorders including silent cerebral infarction, stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Based on these premises, we analyzed and assessed the toxic impact of smoke extract from a range of tobacco products (with varying levels of nicotine) on brain microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3), a well characterized human BBB model. RESULTS: Initial profiling of TS showed a significant release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in full flavor, nicotine-free (NF, "reduced-exposure" brand) and ultralow nicotine products. This release correlated with increased oxidative cell damage. In parallel, membrane expression of endothelial tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin were significantly down-regulated suggesting the impairment of barrier function. Expression of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 were also increased by the ultralow or nicotine free tobacco smoke extract. TS extract from these cigarettes also induced an inflammatory response in BBB ECs as demonstrated by increased IL-6 and MMP-2 levels and up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1 and PECAM-1. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results indicate that NF and ultralow nicotine cigarettes are potentially more harmful to the BBB endothelium than regular tobacco products. In addition, this study demonstrates that the TS-induced toxicity at BBB ECs is strongly correlated to the TAR and NO levels in the cigarettes rather than the nicotine content.
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inserm-00991193 , version 1 (14-05-2014)

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Pooja Naik, Neel Fofaria, Shikha Prasad, Ravi Sajja, Babette Weksler, et al.. Oxidative and pro-inflammatory impact of regular and denicotinized cigarettes on blood brain barrier endothelial cells: is smoking reduced or nicotine-free products really safe?. BMC Neuroscience, 2014, 15 (1), pp.51. ⟨10.1186/1471-2202-15-51⟩. ⟨inserm-00991193⟩
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