E. Derhovanessian, R. Solana, A. Larbi, and G. Pawelec, Immunity, ageing and cancer, Immunity & Ageing, vol.5, issue.1, p.11, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1742-4933-5-11

T. Fulop, A. Larbi, J. Witkowski, R. Kotb, K. Hirokawa et al., Immunosenescence and Cancer, Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis, vol.18, issue.6, pp.489-513, 2013.
DOI : 10.1615/CritRevOncog.2013010597

T. Krupica, T. Fry, C. Mackall, and T. Krupica, Autoimmunity during lymphopenia: A two-hit model, Clinical Immunology, vol.120, issue.2, pp.121-128, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clim.2006.04.569

T. Calzascia, M. Pellegrini, A. Lin, K. Garza, A. Elford et al., CD4 T cells, lymphopenia, and IL-7 in a multistep pathway to autoimmunity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.8, pp.2999-3004, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0712135105

G. Wick, P. Jansen-dürr, P. Berger, and I. Blasko, Diseases of aging, Vaccine, vol.18, issue.16, pp.1567-1583, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00489-2

G. Pawelec and A. Larbi, Immunity and ageing in man, Experimental Gerontology, vol.41, issue.12, pp.34-38, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.exger.2006.09.005

N. Weng, Aging of the Immune System: How Much Can the Adaptive Immune System Adapt?, Immunity, vol.24, issue.5, pp.495-499, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.05.001

A. Larbi, G. Pawelec, S. Wong, D. Goldeck, J. Tai et al., Impact of age on T cell signaling: A general defect or specific alterations?, Ageing Research Reviews, vol.10, issue.3, pp.370-378, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.arr.2010.09.008

A. Larbi, G. Dupuis, A. Khalil, N. Douziech, C. Fortin et al., Differential role of lipid rafts in the functions of CD4+ and CD8+ human T lymphocytes with aging, Cellular Signalling, vol.18, issue.7, pp.1017-1030, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cellsig.2005.08.016

G. Chen, A. Lustig, and N. Weng, T Cell Aging: A Review of the Transcriptional Changes Determined from Genome-Wide Analysis, Frontiers in Immunology, vol.4, p.121, 2013.
DOI : 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00121

J. Proust, P. Rosenzweig, C. Debouzy, and R. Moulias, Lymphopenia Induced by Acute Bacterial Infections in the Elderly: A Sign of Age-Related Immune Dysfunction of Major Prognostic Significance, Gerontology, vol.31, issue.3, pp.178-185, 1987.
DOI : 10.1159/000212700

I. Rea, H. Alexander, A. Crockard, and T. Morris, CD4 lymphopenia in very elderly people, Lancet, vol.347, pp.328-329, 1996.

D. Sauce, M. Larsen, S. Fastenackels, A. Roux, G. Gorochov et al., Lymphopenia-Driven Homeostatic Regulation of Naive T Cells in Elderly and Thymectomized Young Adults, The Journal of Immunology, vol.189, issue.12, pp.5541-5548, 2012.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1201235

C. Bourgeois and B. Stockinger, CD25+CD4+ Regulatory T Cells and Memory T Cells Prevent Lymphopenia-Induced Proliferation of Naive T Cells in Transient States of Lymphopenia, The Journal of Immunology, vol.177, issue.7, pp.4558-4566, 2006.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.177.7.4558

D. Braber, I. Mugwagwa, T. Vrisekoop, N. Westera, L. Mögling et al., Maintenance of peripheral naive T cells is sustained by thymus output in mice but not humans, Immunity, vol.36, pp.288-297, 2012.

C. Mackall, T. Fleisher, M. Brown, M. Andrich, C. Chen et al., Age, Thymopoiesis, and CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Regeneration after Intensive Chemotherapy, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.332, issue.3, pp.143-149, 1995.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM199501193320303

R. Mosley, M. Koker, and R. Miller, Idiosyncratic Alterations of TCR Size Distributions Affecting Both CD4 and CD8 T Cell Subsets in Aging Mice, Cellular Immunology, vol.189, issue.1, pp.10-18, 1998.
DOI : 10.1006/cimm.1998.1369

M. Hall, J. Reid, and J. Lanchbury, The distribution of human TCR junctional region lengths shifts with age in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, International Immunology, vol.10, issue.10, pp.1407-1419, 1998.
DOI : 10.1093/intimm/10.10.1407

V. Buchholz, M. Neuenhahn, and D. Busch, CD8+ T cell differentiation in the aging immune system: until the last clone standing, Current Opinion in Immunology, vol.23, issue.4, pp.549-554, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.coi.2011.05.002

J. Lemaoult, I. Messaoudi, J. Manavalan, H. Potvin, D. Nikolich-zugich et al., Age-Related Dysregulation in CD8 T Cell Homeostasis: Kinetics of a Diversity Loss, The Journal of Immunology, vol.165, issue.5, pp.2367-2373, 2000.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.165.5.2367

R. Aspinall, Age-associated thymic atrophy in the mouse is due to a deficiency affecting rearrangement of the TCR during intrathymic T cell development, J Immunol, vol.158, pp.3037-3045, 1997.

C. Mackall, J. Punt, P. Morgan, A. Farr, and R. Gress, Thymic function in young/old chimeras: substantial thymic T cell regenerative capacity despite irreversible age-associated thymic involution, European Journal of Immunology, vol.14, issue.6, pp.1886-1893, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199806)28:06<1886::AID-IMMU1886>3.0.CO;2-M

R. Aspinall, D. Pitts, A. Lapenna, and W. Mitchell, Immunity in the Elderly: The Role of the Thymus, Journal of Comparative Pathology, vol.142, pp.111-115, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.10.022

P. Linton and K. Dorshkind, Age-related changes in lymphocyte development and function, Nature Immunology, vol.5, issue.2, pp.133-139, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/ni1033

R. Miller, The Aging Immune System: Primer and Prospectus, Science, vol.273, issue.5271, pp.70-74, 1996.
DOI : 10.1126/science.273.5271.70

J. Lefebvre, A. Maue, S. Eaton, P. Lanthier, M. Tighe et al., The aged microenvironment contributes to the age-related functional defects of CD4 T cells in mice, Aging Cell, vol.185, issue.5, pp.732-740, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012.00836.x

V. Zediak, I. Maillard, and A. Bhandoola, Multiple prethymic defects underlie age-related loss of T progenitor competence, Blood, vol.110, issue.4, pp.1161-1167, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2007-01-071605

M. Czesnikiewicz-guzik, W. Lee, D. Cui, Y. Hiruma, D. Lamar et al., T cell subset-specific susceptibility to aging, Clinical Immunology, vol.127, issue.1, pp.107-118, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clim.2007.12.002

A. Lerner, T. Yamada, and R. Miller, Pgp-1hi T lymphocytes accumulate with age in mice and respond poorly to concanavalin A, European Journal of Immunology, vol.165, issue.6, pp.977-982, 1989.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.1830190604

E. Bell and S. Sparshott, The peripheral T-cell pool: regulation by non-antigen induced proliferation?, Seminars in Immunology, vol.9, issue.6, pp.347-353, 1997.
DOI : 10.1006/smim.1997.0092

W. Kieper and S. Jameson, Homeostatic expansion and phenotypic conversion of naive T cells in response to self peptide/MHC ligands, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.96, issue.23, pp.13306-13311, 1999.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.96.23.13306

C. Bourgeois and B. Stockinger, T cell homeostasis in steady state and lymphopenic conditions, Immunology Letters, vol.107, issue.2, pp.89-92, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imlet.2006.08.001

V. Ganusov, D. Boer, and R. , Do most lymphocytes in humans really reside in the gut? Trends Immunol, pp.514-518, 2007.

C. Mackall, L. Granger, M. Sheard, R. Cepeda, and R. Gress, T-cell regeneration after bone marrow transplantation: differential CD45 isoform expression on thymic-derived versus thymic-independent progeny, Blood, vol.82, pp.2585-2594, 1993.

C. Bourgeois, Z. Hao, K. Rajewsky, A. Potocnik, and B. Stockinger, Ablation of thymic export causes accelerated decay of naive CD4 T cells in the periphery because of activation by environmental antigen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.25, pp.8691-8696, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0803732105

V. Jankovic, I. Messaoudi, and J. Nikolich-zugich, Phenotypic and functional T-cell aging in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): differential behavior of CD4 and CD8 subsets, Blood, vol.102, issue.9, pp.3244-3251, 2013.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2003-03-0927

C. Tanchot and B. Rocha, The organization of mature T-cell pools, Immunology Today, vol.19, issue.12, pp.575-579, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-5699(98)01344-9

A. Ma, R. Koka, and P. Burkett, DIVERSE FUNCTIONS OF IL-2, IL-15, AND IL-7 IN LYMPHOID HOMEOSTASIS, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.24, issue.1, pp.657-679, 2006.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090727

M. Utsuyama and K. Hirokawa, Age-related changes of splenic T cells in mice ??? a flow cytometric analysis, Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol.40, issue.1, pp.89-102, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0047-6374(87)90037-6

A. Stienen, O. Feyen, and T. Niehues, Effect of age on homeostasis of lymphocytes in an interleukin-7-deficient mouse model, Eur Cytokine Netw, vol.22, pp.63-72, 2011.

Y. Ishimoto, C. Tomiyama-miyaji, H. Watanabe, H. Yokoyama, K. Ebe et al., Age-dependent variation in the proportion and number of intestinal lymphocyte subsets, especially natural killer T cells, double-positive CD4+ CD8+ cells and B220+ T cells, in mice, Immunology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.371-377, 2004.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2567.1997.00222.x

F. Menzies and F. Henriquez, Immunomodulation by the Female Sex Hormones, The Open Infectious Diseases Journal, vol.3, issue.1, pp.61-72, 2009.
DOI : 10.2174/1874279300903010061

J. Strindhall, M. Skog, J. Ernerudh, M. Bengner, S. Löfgren et al., The inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and associated parameters in 66-year-old individuals: the Swedish HEXA immune study, AGE, vol.9, issue.4, pp.985-991, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s11357-012-9400-3

S. Gupta, H. Su, R. Bi, S. Agrawal, and S. Gollapudi, Life and death of lymphocytes: a role in immunesenescence. Immun ageing I A, p.12, 2005.

D. Posnett, R. Sinha, S. Kabak, and C. Russo, Clonal populations of T cells in normal elderly humans: the T cell equivalent to "benign monoclonal gammapathy" [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1994 Mar 1;179(3):1077], Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.179, issue.2, pp.609-618, 1994.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.179.2.609

R. Hingorani, I. Choi, P. Akolkar, B. Gulwani-akolkar, R. Pergolizzi et al., Clonal Predominance of T Cell Receptors Within the CD8+ CD45RO + Subset in Normal Human Subjects, J Immunol, issue.10, pp.1515762-5769, 1993.

M. Ahmed, K. Lanzer, E. Yager, P. Adams, L. Johnson et al., Clonal Expansions and Loss of Receptor Diversity in the Naive CD8 T Cell Repertoire of Aged Mice, The Journal of Immunology, vol.182, issue.2, pp.784-792, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.182.2.784

J. Callahan, J. Kappler, and P. Marrack, Unexpected expansions of CD8-bearing cells in old mice, J Immunol, vol.151, pp.6657-6669, 1993.

A. Gruver, L. Hudson, and G. Sempowski, Immunosenescence of ageing, The Journal of Pathology, vol.33, issue.2, pp.144-156, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/path.2104

K. Honda and D. Littman, The Microbiome in Infectious Disease and Inflammation, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.759-795, 2012.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-020711-074937

N. Kamada, S. Seo, G. Chen, and G. Núñez, Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.109, issue.5, pp.321-335, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nri3430

R. Veazey, M. Demaria, L. Chalifoux, D. Shvetz, D. Pauley et al., Gastrointestinal Tract as a Major Site of CD4+ T Cell Depletion and Viral Replication in SIV Infection, Science, vol.280, issue.5362, pp.427-431, 1998.
DOI : 10.1126/science.280.5362.427

B. Sheridan and L. Lefrançois, Regional and mucosal memory T cells, Nature Immunology, vol.177, issue.6, pp.485-491, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nature09849

T. Sathaliyawala, M. Kubota, N. Yudanin, D. Turner, P. Camp et al., Distribution and Compartmentalization of Human Circulating and Tissue-Resident Memory T Cell Subsets, Immunity, vol.38, issue.1, pp.187-197, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.09.020

J. Schulthess, B. Meresse, E. Ramiro-puig, N. Montcuquet, S. Darche et al., Interleukin-15-Dependent NKp46+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Control Intestinal Inflammation by Recruiting Inflammatory Monocytes, Immunity, vol.37, issue.1, pp.108-121, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.05.013