Antiestrogen-binding site ligands induce autophagy in myeloma cells that proceeds through alteration of cholesterol metabolism

Abstract : Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite extensive efforts to design drugs targeting tumoral cells and their microenvironment, MM remains an incurable disease for which new therapeutic strategies are needed. We demonstrated here that antiestrogens (AEs) belonging to selective estrogen receptor modulators family induce a caspase-dependent apoptosis and trigger a protective autophagy. Autophagy was recognized by monodansylcadaverin staining, detection of autophagosomes by electronic microscopy, and detection of the cleaved form of the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3. Moreover, autophagy was inhibited by drugs such as bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenosine. Autophagy was mediated by the binding of AEs to a class of receptors called the antiestrogen binding site (AEBS) different from the classical estrogen nuclear receptors. The binding of specific ligands to the AEBS was accompanied by alteration of cholesterol metabolism and in particular accumulation of sterols: zymostenol or desmosterol depending on the ligand. This was due to the inhibition of the cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase activity borne by the AEBS. We further showed that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway mediated autophagy signaling. Moreover, AEBS ligands restored sensitivity to dexamethasone in resistant MM cells. Since we showed previously that AEs arrest MM tumor growth in xenografted mice, we propose that AEBS ligands may have a potent antimyeloma activity alone or in combination with drugs used in clinic.
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Oncotarget, Impact journals, 2013, 4 (6), pp.911-922. 〈10.18632/oncotarget.1066〉
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Brigitte Sola, Marc Poirot, Philippe De Medina, Sophie Bustany, Véronique Marsaud, et al.. Antiestrogen-binding site ligands induce autophagy in myeloma cells that proceeds through alteration of cholesterol metabolism. Oncotarget, Impact journals, 2013, 4 (6), pp.911-922. 〈10.18632/oncotarget.1066〉. 〈inserm-00968940〉

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