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The subxiphoid view cannot replace the apical view for transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of hemodynamic status.

Abstract : INTRODUCTION: This prospective study aimed to assess whether use of the subxiphoid acoustic window in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) can be an accurate alternative in the absence of an apical view to assess hemodynamic parameters. METHODS: This prospective study took place in a teaching hospital medical ICU. Over a 4-month period, TTE was performed in patients admitted for more than 24 hours. Two operators rated the quality of parasternal, apical, and subxiphoid acoustic windows as Excellent, Good, Acceptable, Poor, or No image. In the subpopulation presenting adequate (rated as acceptable or higher) apical and subxiphoid views, we compared the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio between right and left ventricular end-diastolic areas (RVEDA/LVEDA), the ratio between early and late mitral inflow on pulsed Doppler (E/A ratio), the aortic velocity time integral (Ao VTI), and the ratio between early mitral inflow and displacement of the mitral annulus on tissue Doppler imaging (E/Ea ratio). RESULTS: An adequate apical view was obtained in 80%, and an adequate subxiphoid view was obtained in 63% of the 107 patients included. Only 5% of patients presented an adequate subxiphoid view without an adequate apical view. In the subpopulation of patients with adequate apical and subxiphoid windows (n = 65), LVEF, E/A, and RVEDA/LVEDA were comparable on both views, and were strongly correlated (r > 0.80) with acceptable biases and precision. However, the Ao VTI and the E/Ea ratio were lower on the subxiphoid view than on the apical view (18 ± 5 versus 16 ± 5 cm and 9.6 ± 4.6 versus 7.6 ± 4 cm, respectively, P = 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: An adequate TTE subxiphoid window was obtained in fewer than two thirds of ICU patients. In addition to the classic indication for the subxiphoid window to study the vena cava and pericardium, this view can be used to study right and left ventricular morphology and function, but does not provide accurate hemodynamic Doppler information. ICU echocardiographers should therefore record both apical and subxiphoid views to assess comprehensively the cardiac function and hemodynamic status.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 18, 2013 - 5:12:56 PM
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Julien Maizel, Ahmed Salhi, Christophe Tribouilloy, Ziad Massy, Gabriel Choukroun, et al.. The subxiphoid view cannot replace the apical view for transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of hemodynamic status.. Critical Care, BioMed Central, 2013, 17 (5), pp.R186. ⟨10.1186/cc12869⟩. ⟨inserm-00905843⟩



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