L. Hamelin, E. Chiappe, and N. Jordan, MF and AR were supported by the French Ministry of Research. MF was also supported by the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale , and AR by the Association France Parkinson. We thank M Moniatte EPFL, Lausanne ) for excellent technical support. Confocal images were acquired at the Plate-forme d'Imagerie Cellulaire Pitié-Salpêtrière (Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris). hA30P?-syn mice for breeding were kindly provided by PJ Kahle (Hertie Institute for, ) and human tissue was provided by the GIE NeuroCEB, 2003.

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