T. Mathews and M. Macdorman, Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2008 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, Natl Vital Stat Rep, vol.60, p.5, 2010.

J. Kurinczuk, J. Hollowell, P. Boyd, L. Oakley, P. Brocklehurst et al., Inequalities in infant mortality project briefing paper 4. The contribution of congenital anomalies to infant mortality. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 2010.

M. Kramer, Intrauterine growth and gestational duration determinants, Pediatrics, vol.80, pp.502-511, 1987.

C. Borrell, E. Cirera, M. Ricart, M. Pasarín, and J. Salvador, Social inequalities in perinatal mortality in a Southern European city, European Journal of Epidemiology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.5-13, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1022524914396

G. Singh and M. Kogan, Persistent Socioeconomic Disparities in Infant, Neonatal, and Postneonatal Mortality Rates in the United States, 1969-2001, PEDIATRICS, vol.119, issue.4, pp.928-939, 1969.
DOI : 10.1542/peds.2005-2181

S. Calling, X. Li, J. Sundquist, and K. Sundquist, Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality of 46???470 preterm infants born in Sweden between 1992 and 2006, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol.33, issue.2, pp.357-365, 1992.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2011.01200.x

T. Janevic, C. Stein, D. Savitz, J. Kaufman, S. Mason et al., Neighborhood Deprivation and Adverse Birth Outcomes among Diverse Ethnic Groups, Annals of Epidemiology, vol.20, issue.6, pp.445-451, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.02.010

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410674

O. Campo, P. Burke, J. Culhane, J. Elo, I. Eyster et al., Neighborhood Deprivation and Preterm Birth among Non-Hispanic Black and White Women in Eight Geographic Areas in the United States, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.167, issue.2, pp.155-163, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwm277

N. Auger, G. J. Daniel, and M. , The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study, BMC Public Health, vol.98, issue.Suppl 1, p.237, 2009.
DOI : 10.2105/AJPH.2004.048439

K. Pickett, J. Ahern, S. Selvin, and B. Abrams, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Maternal Race and Preterm Delivery A Case-Control Study, Annals of Epidemiology, vol.12, issue.6
DOI : 10.1016/S1047-2797(01)00249-6

Z. Luo, R. Wilkins, and M. Kramer, Effect of neighbourhood income and maternal education on birth outcomes: a population-based study, Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol.174, issue.10, pp.1415-1420, 2006.
DOI : 10.1503/cmaj.051096

E. Roberts, Neighborhood social environments and the distribution of low birthweight in Chicago., American Journal of Public Health, vol.87, issue.4, pp.597-603, 1997.
DOI : 10.2105/AJPH.87.4.597

C. Agyemang, T. Vrijkotte, M. Droomers, M. Van-der-wal, G. Bonsel et al., The effect of neighbourhood income and deprivation on pregnancy outcomes in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol.63, issue.9, pp.755-760, 2009.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.2008.080408

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00477869

J. Kaufman, N. Dole, D. Savitz, and A. Herring, Modeling Community-level Effects on Preterm Birth, Annals of Epidemiology, vol.13, issue.5, pp.377-384, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1047-2797(02)00480-5

L. Carbajal-arroyo, V. Miranda-soberanis, M. Medina-ramón, L. Rojas-bracho, G. Tzintzun et al., Effect of PM(10) and O(3) on infant mortality among residents in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case-crossover analysis, 1997.

M. Genereux, N. Auger, M. Goneau, and M. Daniel, Neighbourhood socioeconomic status, maternal education and adverse birth outcomes among mothers living near highways, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol.62, issue.8, pp.695-700, 2008.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.2007.066167

T. Woodruff, J. Parker, A. Kyle, and K. Schoendorf, Disparities in Exposure to Air Pollution during Pregnancy, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.111, issue.7, pp.942-946, 2003.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.5317

W. Passchier-vermeer and W. Passchier, Noise exposure and public health, pp.123-131

C. Guidelines, . Noise, and . Geneva, Available at, 1999.

R. Mitchell and F. Popham, Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study, The Lancet, vol.372, issue.9650, pp.1655-1660, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61689-X

A. Lee and R. Maheswaran, The health benefits of urban green spaces: a review of the evidence, Journal of Public Health, vol.33, issue.2, pp.212-222, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/pubmed/fdq068

D. Bowler, L. Buyung-ali, and T. Knight, A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments, BMC Public Health, vol.372, issue.1, p.456, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61669-4

J. Maas, R. Verheij, S. Vriesde, P. Spreeuwenberg, F. Schellevis et al., Morbidity is related to a green living environment, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol.63, issue.12, pp.967-973, 2009.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.2008.079038

A. Bedimo-rung, A. Mowen, and D. Cohen, The significance of parks to physical activity and public health, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol.28, issue.2, pp.159-168, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.024

L. Vinikoor-imler, L. Messer, K. Evenson, and B. Laraia, Neighborhood conditions are associated with maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes, Social Science & Medicine, vol.73, issue.9, pp.1302-1311, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.012

J. Pretty, M. Griffin, M. Sellens, and C. Pretty, Green exercise: complementary roles of nature, exercise and diet in physical and emotional well-being and implications for public health policy, CES Occasional paper, 2003.

D. Nowak, D. Crane, and J. Stevens, Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, pp.115-123, 2006.

E. Paoletti, T. Bardelli, G. Giovannini, and L. Pecchioli, Air quality impact of an urban park over time, Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol.4, pp.10-16, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.proenv.2011.03.002

. Greater-london-authority, Health Issues in Planning: Best Practice Guidance. London: Greater London Authority, 2007.

J. Maas, S. Van-dillen, R. Verheij, and P. Groenewegen, Social contacts as a possible mechanism behind the relation between green space and health, Health & Place, vol.15, issue.2, pp.586-595, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.09.006

W. Thompson, C. Roe, J. Aspinall, P. Mitchell, R. Clow et al., More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: Evidence from salivary cortisol patterns, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.105, issue.3, pp.221-229, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.12.015

J. Maas, R. Verheij, P. Groenewegen, S. De-vries, and P. Spreeuwenberg, Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation?, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol.60, issue.7, pp.587-592, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.2005.043125

T. Sugiyama, E. Leslie, B. Giles-corti, and N. Owen, Associations of neighbourhood greenness with physical and mental health: do walking, social coherence and local social interaction explain the relationships?, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol.62, issue.5, p.9, 2008.
DOI : 10.1136/jech.2007.064287

Z. Hu, J. Liebens, and K. Rao, Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study, International Journal of Health Geographics, vol.7, issue.1, p.20, 2008.
DOI : 10.1161/01.STR.0000189687.78760.47

K. Lachowycz and A. Jones, Greenspace and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence, Obesity Reviews, vol.65, issue.1, pp.183-189, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00827.x

P. Dadvand, D. Nazelle, A. Figueras, F. Basagaña, X. Su et al., Green space, health inequality and pregnancy, Environment International, vol.40, pp.110-115, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.004

P. Dadvand, D. Nazelle, A. Triguero-mas, M. Schembari, A. Cirach et al., Surrounding Greenness and Exposure to Air Pollution During Pregnancy: An Analysis of Personal Monitoring Data, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.120, issue.9, pp.1286-1290, 2012.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.1104609

P. Dadvand, J. Sunyer, X. Basagaña, F. Ballester, A. Lertxundi et al., Surrounding Greenness and Pregnancy Outcomes in Four Spanish Birth Cohorts, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.120, issue.10, pp.1481-1487, 2012.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.1205244

G. Donovan, Y. Michael, D. Butry, A. Sullivan, and J. Chase, Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes, Health & Place, vol.17, issue.1, pp.390-393, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.11.004

D. Crawford, A. Timperio, B. Giles-corti, K. Ball, C. Hume et al., Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status? Health Place, pp.889-893, 2008.

M. Koohsari, ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE: IS DISTRIBUTION EQUITABLE ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS, Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, vol.5, issue.2, p.67, 2011.
DOI : 10.4090/juee.2011.v5n2.067072

A. Bambhroliya, K. Burau, and K. Sexton, Spatial Analysis of County-Level Breast Cancer Mortality in Texas, Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol.25, issue.28, p.959343
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM200007133430201

B. Lalloué, J. Monnez, C. Padilla, W. Kihal, L. Meur et al., A statistical procedure to create a neighborhood socioeconomic index for health inequalities analysis, International Journal for Equity in Health, vol.12, issue.1, p.21, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.031

M. Kulldorff, E. Feuer, B. Miller, and L. Freedma, Breast Cancer Clusters in the Northeast United States: A Geographic Analysis, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.146, issue.2, pp.161-170, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009247

M. Dwass, Modified Randomization Tests for Nonparametric Hypotheses, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol.28, issue.1, pp.181-187, 1957.
DOI : 10.1214/aoms/1177707045

K. Melzer, Y. Schutz, M. Boulvain, and B. Kayser, Physical Activity and Pregnancy, Sports Medicine, vol.163, issue.3, pp.493-507, 2010.
DOI : 10.2165/11532290-000000000-00000

R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan, The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective, 1989.

T. Hartig, G. Evans, L. Jamner, D. Davis, and T. Gärling, Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings, Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol.23, issue.2, pp.109-123, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00109-3

R. Ulrich, Aesthetic and affective response to natural environment. Human Behavior & Environment: Advances in Theory & Research, pp.85-125, 1983.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-3539-9_4

R. Ulrich, R. Simons, B. Losito, E. Fiorito, M. Miles et al., Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments, Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol.11, issue.3, pp.201-230, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80184-7

J. Barton and J. Pretty, What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for Improving Mental Health? A Multi-Study Analysis, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.44, issue.10, pp.3947-3955, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/es903183r

J. Roe and P. Aspinall, The restorative benefits of walking in urban and rural settings in adults with good and poor mental health, Health & Place, vol.17, issue.1, pp.103-113, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.09.003

M. Heinrichs, T. Baumgartner, C. Kirschbaum, and U. Ehlert, Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress, Biological Psychiatry, vol.54, issue.12, pp.1389-1398, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00465-7

T. Hartig, M. Mang, and G. Evans, Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences, Environment and Behavior, vol.23, issue.1, pp.3-26, 1991.
DOI : 10.1177/0013916591231001

J. Ottosson and P. Grahn, A Comparison of Leisure Time Spent in a Garden with Leisure Time Spent Indoors: On Measures of Restoration in Residents in Geriatric Care, Landscape Research, vol.20, issue.1, pp.23-55, 2005.
DOI : 10.1080/014904099273110

H. Morishima, M. Yeh, and L. James, Reduced uterine blood flow and fetal hypoxemia with acute maternal stress: Experimental observation in the pregnant baboon, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.134, issue.3, pp.270-275, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9378(16)33032-0

L. Schell, M. Gallo, M. Denham, and J. Ravenscroft, Effects of Pollution on Human Growth and Development: An Introduction, Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, vol.25, issue.1, pp.103-112, 2006.
DOI : 10.2114/jpa2.25.103

R. Myers, Maternal psychological stress and fetal asphyxia: A study in the monkey, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.122, issue.1, pp.47-59, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0002-9378(75)90614-6

R. Myers, Production of fetal asphyxia by maternal psychological stress, Pavlov J Biol Sci, vol.12, pp.51-62, 1977.

C. Hobel, Stress and Preterm Birth, Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.47, issue.4, pp.856-880, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/01.grf.0000142512.38733.8c

J. Pivarnik, H. Chambliss, J. Clapp, S. Dugan, M. Hatch et al., Impact of physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum on chronic disease risk, Med Sci Sports Exerc, vol.38, pp.989-1006, 2006.

S. Yeo, N. Steele, M. Chang, S. Leclaire, D. Ronis et al., Effect of exercise on blood pressure in pregnant women with a high risk of gestational hypertensive disorders, J Reprod Med, vol.45, pp.293-298, 2000.

T. Sorensen, M. Williams, I. Lee, E. Dashow, M. Thompson et al., Recreational Physical Activity During Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia, Hypertension, vol.41, issue.6, pp.1273-1280, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.HYP.0000072270.82815.91

X. Xiong, D. Mayes, N. Demianczuk, D. Olson, S. Davidge et al., Impact of pregnancy-induced hypertension on fetal growth, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.180, issue.1, pp.207-213, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9378(99)70176-6

X. Xiong, N. Demianczuk, P. Buekens, and L. Saunders, Association of preeclampsia with high birth weight for age, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol.183, issue.1, pp.148-155, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9378(00)24793-5

B. Sibai, G. Dekker, and M. Kupferminc, Pre-eclampsia. The Lancet, pp.785-799, 2005.

J. Roberts and C. Redman, Pre-eclampsia: more than pregnancy-induced hypertension, The Lancet, vol.341, issue.8858, pp.1447-1451, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0140-6736(93)90889-O

D. Tobias, C. Zhang, V. Dam, R. Bowers, K. Hu et al., Physical Activity Before and During Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A meta-analysis, Diabetes Care, vol.34, issue.1, pp.223-229, 2011.
DOI : 10.2337/dc10-1368

K. Stothard, P. Tennant, R. Bell, and J. Rankin, Maternal Overweight and Obesity and the Risk of Congenital Anomalies, JAMA, vol.301, issue.6, pp.636-650, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2009.113

K. Evenson, A. Siega-riz, D. Savitz, J. Leiferman, J. Thorp et al., Vigorous Leisure Activity and Pregnancy Outcome, Epidemiology, vol.13, issue.6, pp.653-659, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00001648-200211000-00009

M. Hedderson, A. Ferrara, and D. Sacks, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Lesser Degrees of Pregnancy Hyperglycemia, Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.102, issue.4, pp.850-856, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00006250-200310000-00030

D. Dacosta, N. Rippen, M. Dritsa, and A. Ring, Self-reported leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy and relationship to psychological well-being

M. Poudevigne, O. Connor, and P. , Physical Activity and Mood during Pregnancy, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol.37, issue.8, pp.1374-1380, 2005.
DOI : 10.1249/01.mss.0000174907.27818.ff

L. Seguin, L. Potvin, M. St-denis, and J. Loiselle, Chronic stressors, social support, anddepressionduringpregnancy.Obstetrics & Gynecology, pp.583-589, 1995.

A. Faisal-cury, R. Araya, M. Zugaib, and P. Menezes, Common mental disorders during pregnancy and adverse obstetric outcomes, Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.20, issue.4, pp.229-235, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwh122

G. Pien and R. Schwab, Sleep disorders during pregnancy, Sleep, vol.27, pp.1405-1417, 2004.

T. Lavin, C. Higgins, O. Metcalfe, and A. Jordan, Health Effects of the Built Environment: A Review. The Institute of Public Health in Ireland, 2006.

C. Cardelino and W. Chameides, Natural hydrocarbons, urbanization, and urban ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.187, issue.D9, pp.971-13979, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/JD095iD09p13971

H. Taha, Modeling impacts of increased urban vegetation on ozone air quality in the South Coast Air Basin, Atmospheric Environment, vol.30, issue.20, pp.3423-3430, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/1352-2310(96)00035-0

D. Nowak, The interactions between urban forests and global climate change.I nGlobal climate change and the urban forest, pp.31-44, 2000.

D. Nowark, The effects of urban trees on air quality, 2002.

H. Akbari, Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants, Environmental Pollution, vol.116, issue.1, pp.119-126, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00264-0

R. Sram, B. Binková, J. Dejmek, and M. Bobak, Ambient Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Literature, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.113, issue.4, pp.375-382, 2005.
DOI : 10.1289/ehp.6362

A. Hartikainen-sorri, M. Sorri, H. Anttonen, R. Tuimala, and E. Läärä, Occupational noise exposure during pregnancy: a case control study, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol.77, issue.Suppl 62, pp.279-283, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00378474

N. Mamelle, B. Laumon, and P. Lazar, PREMATURITY AND OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITY DURING PREGNANCY, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.119, issue.3, pp.309-322, 1984.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113750

A. Hartikainen, M. Sorri, H. Anttonen, R. Tuimala, and E. Läärä, Effect of occupational noise on the course and outcome of pregnancy., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol.20, issue.6, pp.444-450, 1994.
DOI : 10.5271/sjweh.1376

P. Knipschild, H. Meijer, and H. Sallé, Aircraft noise and birth weight, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol.64, issue.2, pp.131-136, 1981.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00378433

A. Gidlöf-gunnarsson and E. Öhrström, Noise and well-being in urban residential environments: The potential role of perceived availability to nearby green areas, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.83, issue.2-3, pp.115-126, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.03.003

E. Richardson, J. Pearce, R. Mitchell, P. Day, and S. Kingham, The association between green space and cause-specific mortality in urban New Zealand: an ecological analysis of green space utility, BMC Public Health, vol.15, issue.4, p.240, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.09.005

P. Estabrooks, R. Lee, and N. Gyurcsik, Resources for physical activity participation: Does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status?, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol.28, issue.2, pp.100-104, 2003.
DOI : 10.1207/S15324796ABM2502_05

E. Talen, The social equity of urban service distribution: an exploration of park access in Pueblo, pp.521-541, 1997.

A. Timperio, K. Ball, J. Salmon, R. Roberts, and D. Crawford, Is availability of public open space equitable across areas? Health Place, pp.335-340, 2007.

A. Jones, M. Hillsdon, and E. Coombes, Greenspace access, use, and physical activity: Understanding the effects of area deprivation, Preventive Medicine, vol.49, issue.6, pp.500-505, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.10.012