. Côte-d-'ivoire, Arlette Emieme (monitor) André Inwoley (immunologist), Hervé Menan (parasitologist), Timothée Ouassa (bacteriologist, Thomas-d'Aquin Toni (virologist)

A. Badjé, Jean Baptiste N'takpé (monitor) Gérard Menan Kouamé (monitor)

T. Quinn, M. Wawer, and N. Sewankambo, Viral Load and Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.342, issue.13, pp.921-929, 2000.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM200003303421303

P. Vernazza, B. Hirschel, E. Bernasconi, and M. Flepp, Les personnes séropositives ne souffrant d'aucune autre MST et suivant un traitement antirétroviral efficace ne transmettent pas le VIH par voie sexuelle, Bull Med Suisse, 2008.

M. Cohen, Y. Chen, and M. Mccauley, Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.365, issue.6, pp.493-505, 2011.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa1105243

R. Granich, C. Gilks, C. Dye, D. Cock, K. Williams et al., Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: a mathematical model, The Lancet, vol.373, issue.9657, pp.48-57, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61697-9

J. Eaton, L. Johnson, and J. Salomon, HIV Treatment as Prevention: Systematic Comparison of Mathematical Models of the Potential Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Incidence in South Africa, PLoS Medicine, vol.21, issue.Suppl 2, p.1001245, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001245.t004

F. Dabis, Reality Check: Is the End of AIDS in Sight?, 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, p.2013

N. Dukers, J. Goudsmit, J. De-wit, M. Prins, G. Weverling et al., Sexual risk behaviour relates to the virological and immunological improvements during highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection, AIDS, vol.15, issue.3, pp.369-378, 2001.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200102160-00010

W. Tun, S. Gange, D. Vlahov, S. Strathdee, and D. Celentano, Increase in Sexual Risk Behavior Associated with Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV???Infected Injection Drug Users, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.38, issue.8, pp.1167-1174, 2004.
DOI : 10.1086/383033

M. Cassell, D. Halperin, J. Shelton, and D. Stanton, Risk compensation: the Achilles' heel of innovations in HIV prevention?, BMJ, vol.332, issue.7541, pp.605-607, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.332.7541.605

L. Eaton and S. Kalichman, Risk compensation in HIV prevention: Implications for vaccines, microbicides, and other biomedical HIV prevention technologies, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol.35, issue.4, pp.165-172, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s11904-007-0024-7

K. Venkatesh, T. Flanigan, and K. Mayer, Is expanded HIV treatment preventing new infections? Impact of antiretroviral therapy on sexual risk behaviors in the developing world, AIDS, vol.25, issue.16, pp.1939-1949, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834b4ced

M. Cohen and C. Gay, Treatment to Prevent Transmission of HIV???1, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.50, issue.s3, pp.85-95, 2010.
DOI : 10.1086/651478

N. Crepaz, T. Hart, and G. Marks, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Sexual Risk Behavior, JAMA, vol.292, issue.2, pp.224-236, 2004.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.292.2.224

H. Chemaitelly, J. Shelton, T. Hallett, and L. Abu-raddad, Only a fraction of new HIV infections occur within identifiable stable discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS, vol.27, issue.2, pp.251-260, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835ad459

J. Hughes, J. Baeten, and J. Lingappa, Determinants of Per-Coital-Act HIV-1 Infectivity Among African HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.205, issue.3, pp.358-365, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/jir747

D. Wilson, M. Law, A. Grulich, D. Cooper, and J. Kaldor, Relation between HIV viral load and infectiousness: a model-based analysis, The Lancet, vol.372, issue.9635, pp.314-320, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61115-0

R. Gray, M. Wawer, and R. Brookmeyer, Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda, The Lancet, vol.357, issue.9263, pp.1149-1153, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04331-2

J. Moatti, J. Prudhomme, D. Traore, A. Juillet-amari, H. Akribi et al., Access to antiretroviral treatment and sexual behaviours of HIV-infected patients aware of their serostatus in C??te d??Ivoire, AIDS, vol.17, pp.69-77, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200317003-00010

S. Diabaté, M. Alary, and C. Koffi, Short-term increase in unsafe sexual behaviour after initiation of HAART in C??te d??Ivoire, AIDS, vol.22, issue.1, pp.154-156, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f029e8

C. Protopopescu, F. Marcellin, and M. Préau, Psychosocial correlates of inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected patients enrolled in a structured ART interruptions trial in C??te d???Ivoire: results from the TRIVACAN trial (ANRS 1269), Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol.29, issue.1, pp.706-712, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02524.x

A. Sarna, S. Luchters, and S. Geibel, Sexual risk behaviour and HAART: a comparative study of HIV-infected persons on HAART and on preventive therapy in Kenya, International Journal of STD & AIDS, vol.36, issue.2, pp.85-89, 2008.
DOI : 10.1258/ijsa.2007.007097

S. Rosen and M. Fox, Retention in HIV Care between Testing and Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review, PLoS Medicine, vol.15, issue.7, p.1001056, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001056.s002

J. Wamoyi, M. Mbonye, J. Seeley, J. Birungi, and S. Jaffar, Changes in sexual desires and behaviours of people living with HIV after initiation of ART: Implications for HIV prevention and health promotion, BMC Public Health, vol.368, issue.9539, p.633, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69350-1

R. Apondi, R. Bunnell, and J. Ekwaru, Sexual behavior and HIV transmission risk of Ugandan adults taking antiretroviral therapy: 3 year follow-up, AIDS, vol.25, issue.10, pp.1317-1327, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328347f775

R. Baggaley, R. White, T. Hollingsworth, and M. Boily, Heterosexual HIV-1 Infectiousness and Antiretroviral Use, Epidemiology, vol.24, issue.1, pp.110-121, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0b013e318276cad7

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312663

T. Hallett, J. Baeten, and R. Heffron, Optimal Uses of Antiretrovirals for Prevention in HIV-1 Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in South Africa: A Modelling Study, PLoS Medicine, vol.296, issue.11, p.1001123, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001123.s007

K. Jean, X. Anglaret, R. Moh, F. Lert, and R. Dray-spira, Barriers to HIV Testing in C??te d'Ivoire: The Role of Individual Characteristics and Testing Modalities, PLoS ONE, vol.10, issue.7, p.41353, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0041353.s002

R. Barth, M. Van-der-loeff, R. Schuurman, A. Hoepelman, and A. Wensing, Virological follow-up of adult patients in antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.10, issue.3, pp.155-166, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70328-7

R. Moh, C. Danel, and A. Badje, Conséquences des conflits armés sur la prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH: exemple de l'essai Temprano (ANRS 12136, AFRAVIH 2012 -6ème Conférence Francophone VIH/SIDA

F. Tanser, T. Bärnighausen, E. Grapsa, J. Zaidi, and M. Newell, High Coverage of ART Associated with Decline in Risk of HIV Acquisition in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Science, vol.339, issue.6122, pp.966-971, 2013.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1228160

D. Wilson, HIV Treatment as Prevention: Natural Experiments Highlight Limits of Antiretroviral Treatment as HIV Prevention, PLoS Medicine, vol.3, issue.6, p.1001231, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001231.g002

W. Delva, J. Eaton, and F. Meng, HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimising the Impact of Expanded HIV Treatment Programmes, PLoS Medicine, vol.59, issue.Suppl 3, p.1001258, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001258.t001

S. Bellan, K. Fiorella, D. Melesse, W. Getz, B. Williams et al., Extra-couple HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: a mathematical modelling study of survey data, The Lancet, vol.381, issue.9877, pp.1561-1569, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61960-6

C. Baseline, Standard arm; n=396; Early arm: n=402 Hughes et al. [19] Same as in the main analysis 2, p.3

. Hughes, Total sample Standard arm; n=467; Early arm: n=490 All participants considered as having hada last unprotected intercourse with a HIV-negative partner 18