S. Bruder, D. Fink, and A. Caplan, Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regenaration therapy, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol.3, issue.3, pp.283-294, 1994.
DOI : 10.1002/jcb.240560303

M. Pittenger, A. Mackay, S. Beck, R. Jaiswal, R. Douglas et al., Multilineage Potential of Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Science, vol.284, issue.5411, pp.143-147, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.284.5411.143

M. Krampera, G. S. Dyson, J. Scott, D. Laylor, R. Simpson et al., Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the response of naive and memory antigen-specific T cells to their cognate peptide, Blood, vol.101, issue.9, pp.3722-3729, 2003.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2002-07-2104

F. Schena, C. Gambini, A. Gregorio, M. Mosconi, D. Reverberi et al., Interferon-??-dependent inhibition of B cell activation by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus, Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol.289, issue.9, pp.2776-2786, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/art.27560

G. Spaggiari, A. Capobianco, H. Abdelrazik, F. Becchetti, M. Mingari et al., T.6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Natural Killer Cell Proliferation, Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Production: Role of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and Prostaglandin E2, Clinical Immunology, vol.131, pp.1327-1333, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clim.2009.03.133

F. Djouad, L. Charbonnier, C. Bouffi, P. Louis-plence, C. Bony et al., Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit the Differentiation of Dendritic Cells Through an Interleukin-6-Dependent Mechanism, Stem Cells, vol.10, issue.8, pp.2025-2032, 2007.
DOI : 10.1634/stemcells.2006-0548

K. English, F. Barry, C. Field-corbett, and B. Mahon, IFN-?? and TNF-?? differentially regulate immunomodulation by murine mesenchymal stem cells, Immunology Letters, vol.110, issue.2, pp.91-100, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imlet.2007.04.001

K. English, J. Ryan, L. Tobin, M. Murphy, F. Barry et al., regulatory T cells, Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol.212, issue.1, pp.149-160, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.03874.x

G. Ren, L. Zhang, X. Zhao, G. Xu, Y. Zhang et al., Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Immunosuppression Occurs via Concerted Action of Chemokines and Nitric Oxide, Cell Stem Cell, vol.2, issue.2, pp.141-150, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.stem.2007.11.014

S. Aggarwal and M. Pittenger, Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses, Blood, vol.105, issue.4, pp.1815-1822, 2005.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2004-04-1559

R. Maccario, M. Podesta, A. Moretta, A. Cometa, P. Comoli et al., Interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells with cells involved in alloantigen-specific immune response favors the differentiation of CD4+ T-cell subsets expressing a regulatory/suppressive phenotype, Haematologica, vol.90, pp.516-525, 2005.

Z. Selmani, A. Naji, I. Zidi, B. Favier, E. Gaiffe et al., Regulatory T Cells, Stem Cells, vol.33, issue.1, pp.212-222, 2008.
DOI : 10.1634/stemcells.2007-0554

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00483522

D. Mougiakakos, R. Jitschin, C. Johansson, R. Okita, R. Kiessling et al., The impact of inflammatory licensing on heme oxygenase-1-mediated induction of regulatory T cells by human mesenchymal stem cells, Blood, vol.117, issue.18, pp.4826-4835, 2011.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2010-12-324038

E. Gonzalez-rey, P. Anderson, M. Gonzalez, L. Rico, D. Buscher et al., Human adult stem cells derived from adipose tissue protect against experimental colitis and sepsis, Gut, vol.58, issue.7, pp.929-939, 2009.
DOI : 10.1136/gut.2008.168534

F. Carrion, N. E. Ruiz, C. Diaz, F. Inostroza, C. Rojo et al., Autologous mesenchymal stem cell treatment increased T regulatory cells with no effect on disease activity in two systemic lupus erythematosus patients, Lupus, vol.29, issue.3, pp.317-322, 2010.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2005-04-1496

N. Perico, F. Casiraghi, M. Introna, E. Gotti, M. Todeschini et al., Autologous Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study of Safety and Clinical Feasibility, Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.412-422, 2011.
DOI : 10.2215/CJN.04950610

J. Lafaille, The Role of Helper T Cell Subsets in Autoimmune Diseases, Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, vol.9, issue.2, pp.139-151, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1359-6101(98)00009-4

E. Bettelli, M. Oukka, and V. Kuchroo, TH-17 cells in the circle of immunity and autoimmunity, Nature Immunology, vol.54, issue.4, pp.345-350, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/ni0407-345

S. Ghannam, J. Pene, G. Torcy-moquet, C. Jorgensen, and H. Yssel, Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Human Th17 Cell Differentiation and Function and Induce a T Regulatory Cell Phenotype, The Journal of Immunology, vol.185, issue.1, pp.302-312, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0902007

F. Carrion, E. Nova, P. Luz, F. Apablaza, and F. Figueroa, Opposing effect of mesenchymal stem cells on Th1 and Th17 cell polarization according to the state of CD4+ T cell activation, Immunology Letters, vol.135, issue.1-2, pp.10-16, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imlet.2010.09.006

S. Rozen and H. Skaletsky, Primer3 on the WWW for General Users and for Biologist Programmers, Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, pp.365-386, 2000.
DOI : 10.1385/1-59259-192-2:365

M. Iruretagoyena, S. Sepulveda, J. Lezana, M. Hermoso, M. Bronfman et al., Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B enhances the capacity of immature dendritic cells to induce antigenspecific tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

H. Domingues, M. Mues, H. Lassmann, H. Wekerle, and G. Krishnamoorthy, Functional and Pathogenic Differences of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, PLoS ONE, vol.8, issue.11, p.15531, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0015531.s011

J. Weiss, A. Bilate, M. Gobert, Y. Ding, C. De-lafaille et al., T reg cells, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.127, issue.10, pp.1723-1742, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/ni.1774

D. Zabransky, C. Nirschl, N. Durham, B. Park, C. Ceccato et al., Phenotypic and Functional Properties of Helios+ Regulatory T Cells, PLoS ONE, vol.40, issue.3, p.34547, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0034547.s001

R. Bacchetta, S. Gregori, and M. Roncarolo, CD4+ regulatory T cells: Mechanisms of induction and effector function, Autoimmunity Reviews, vol.4, issue.8, pp.491-496, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.autrev.2005.04.005

S. Beyth, Z. Borovsky, D. Mevorach, M. Liebergall, Z. Gazit et al., Human mesenchymal stem cells alter antigen-presenting cell maturation and induce T-cell unresponsiveness, Blood, vol.105, issue.5, pp.2214-2219, 2005.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2004-07-2921

C. Prevosto, M. Zancolli, P. Canevali, M. Zocchi, and A. Poggi, Generation of CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells upon mesenchymal stem cell-lymphocyte interaction, Haematologica, vol.92, issue.7, pp.881-888, 2007.
DOI : 10.3324/haematol.11240

F. Djouad, P. Plence, C. Bony, P. Tropel, F. Apparailly et al., Immunosuppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells favors tumor growth in allogeneic animals, Blood, vol.102, issue.10, pp.3837-3844, 2003.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2003-04-1193

S. Hori, T. Takahashi, and S. Sakaguchi, Control of Autoimmunity by Naturally Arising Regulatory CD4+ T Cells, Adv Immunol, vol.81, pp.331-371, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2776(03)81008-8

E. Zappia, S. Casazza, E. Pedemonte, F. Benvenuto, I. Bonanni et al., Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis inducing T-cell anergy, Blood, vol.106, issue.5, pp.1755-1761, 2005.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2005-04-1496