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gSG6-P1 salivary biomarker discriminates micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in low and seasonal malaria areas.

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, a sharp decline of malaria burden has been observed in several countries. Consequently, the conventional entomological methods have become insufficiently sensitive and probably under-estimate micro-geographical heterogeneity of exposure and subsequent risk of malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated whether the human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide, known as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure, could be a sensitive and reliable tool for discriminating human exposure to Anopheles bites in area of low and seasonal malaria transmission. METHODS: A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in Northern Senegal where An. gambiae s.l. is the main malaria vector. Human IgG Ab response to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was compared according to the season and villages in children from five villages in the middle Senegal River valley, known as a low malaria transmission area. RESULTS: IgG levels to gSG6-P1 varied considerably according to the villages, discriminating the heterogeneity of Anopheles exposure between villages. Significant increase of IgG levels to gSG6-P1 was observed during the peak of exposure to Anopheles bites, and decreased immediately after the end of the exposure season. In addition, differences in the season-dependent specific IgG levels between villages were observed after the implementation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by The National Malaria Control Program in this area. CONCLUSION: The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission. A biomarker such as this could also be used to monitor and evaluate the possible heterogeneous effectiveness of operational vector control programs in low-exposure areas.
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André Barembaye Sagna, Jean Biram Sarr, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa Makhtar Drame, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath, et al.. gSG6-P1 salivary biomarker discriminates micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in low and seasonal malaria areas.. Parasites and Vectors, BioMed Central, 2013, 6 (1), pp.68. ⟨10.1186/1756-3305-6-68⟩. ⟨inserm-00816090⟩

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