I. Ahearn, K. Haigis, D. Bar-sagi, and M. Philips, Regulating the regulator: post-translational modification of RAS, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.109, issue.1, pp.39-51, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nrm3255

A. Alpar, U. Gartner, G. Seeger, W. Hartig, K. Brauer et al., in pyramidal neurons results in reorganization of mouse neocortical afferents, Journal of Neurobiology, vol.98, issue.3, pp.263-274, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/neu.20019

S. Baouz, E. Jacquet, K. Accorsi, C. Hountondji, M. Balestrini et al., Sites of Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase A in CDC25Mm/GRF1, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Ras, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.276, issue.3, pp.1742-1749, 2001.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M005770200

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00771803

S. Barak, S. Carnicella, Q. Yowell, and R. D. , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Reverses Alcohol-Induced Allostasis of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: Implications for Alcohol Reward and Seeking, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.31, issue.27, pp.9885-9894, 2011.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1750-11.2011

J. Bos, H. Rehmann, and A. Wittinghofer, GEFs and GAPs: Critical Elements in the Control of Small G Proteins, Cell, vol.129, issue.5, pp.865-877, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.018

R. Brambilla, N. Gnesutta, L. Minichiello, G. White, A. Roylance et al., A role for the Ras signalling pathway in synaptic transmission and long-term memory, Nature, vol.390, pp.281-286, 1997.

S. Carnicella, R. Amamoto, and R. D. , Excessive alcohol consumption is blocked by glial cell line???derived neurotrophic factor, Alcohol, vol.43, issue.1, pp.35-43, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.12.001

E. Castellano and J. Downward, RAS Interaction with PI3K: More Than Just Another Effector Pathway, Genes & Cancer, vol.2, issue.3, pp.261-274, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/1947601911408079

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128635

R. Costa, N. Federov, J. Kogan, G. Murphy, J. Stern et al., Mechanism for the learning deficits in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type 1, Nature, vol.415, issue.6871, pp.526-530, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/nature711

A. Cox and C. Der, Ras history, Small GTPases, vol.14, issue.1, pp.2-27, 2010.
DOI : 10.4161/sgtp.1.1.12178

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109476

D. Cozzoli, S. Goulding, P. Zhang, X. B. Hu, J. Ary et al., Binge Drinking Upregulates Accumbens mGluR5-Homer2-PI3K Signaling: Functional Implications for Alcoholism, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.29, issue.27, pp.8655-8668, 2009.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5900-08.2009

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761716

S. Desrivieres, K. Krause, A. Dyer, J. Frank, D. Blomeyer et al., Nucleotide Sequence Variation within the PI3K p85 Alpha Gene Associates with Alcohol Risk Drinking Behaviour in Adolescents, PLoS ONE, vol.1, issue.1, p.1769, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0001769.t005

S. Fasano, D. Antoni, A. Orban, P. Valjent, E. Putignano et al., Ras-Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 1 (Ras-GRF1) Controls Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Signaling in the Striatum and Long-Term Behavioral Responses to Cocaine, Biological Psychiatry, vol.66, issue.8, pp.758-768, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.03.014

L. Feig, Regulation of Neuronal Function by Ras-GRF Exchange Factors, Genes & Cancer, vol.2, issue.3, pp.306-319, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/1947601911408077

A. Fernandez-medarde and E. Santos, The RasGrf family of mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer, vol.1815, issue.2, pp.170-188, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbcan.2010.11.001

U. Gartner, A. Alpar, F. Reimann, G. Seeger, R. Heumann et al., Constitutive Ras activity induces hippocampal hypertrophy and remodeling of pyramidal neurons in synRas mice, Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol.179, issue.Suppl, pp.630-641, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/jnr.20194

R. Gonzales, M. Job, and W. Doyon, The role of mesolimbic dopamine in the development and maintenance of ethanol reinforcement, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.103, issue.2, pp.121-146, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2004.06.002

C. Hoeffer and E. Klann, mTOR signaling: At the crossroads of plasticity, memory and disease, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.33, issue.2, pp.67-75, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tins.2009.11.003

S. Hyman, R. Malenka, and E. Nestler, NEURAL MECHANISMS OF ADDICTION: The Role of Reward-Related Learning and Memory, Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol.29, issue.1, pp.565-598, 2006.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.113009

M. Kaneko, C. Cheetham, Y. Lee, A. Silva, M. Stryker et al., Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.44, pp.19026-19031, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1013866107

J. Kim, H. Lee, K. Takamiya, and R. Huganir, The role of synaptic GTPase-activating protein in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, J Neurosci, vol.23, pp.1119-1124, 2003.

G. Koob, Alcoholism: Allostasis and Beyond, Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, vol.16, issue.2, pp.232-243, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s002130100773

G. Koob and N. Volkow, Neurocircuitry of Addiction, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.16, issue.1, pp.217-238, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)01070-2

S. Kushner, Y. Elgersma, G. Murphy, D. Jaarsma, G. Van-woerden et al., Modulation of Presynaptic Plasticity and Learning by the H-ras/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Synapsin I Signaling Pathway, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.25, issue.42, pp.9721-9734, 2005.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2836-05.2005

A. Lasek, P. Janak, L. He, J. Whistler, and U. Heberlein, Downregulation of mu opioid receptor by RNA interference in the ventral tegmental area reduces ethanol consumption in mice, Genes, Brain and Behavior, vol.32, issue.8, pp.728-735, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2007.00303.x

J. Leon, I. Guerrero, and A. Pellicer, Differential expression of the ras gene family in mice., Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.7, issue.4, pp.1535-1540, 1987.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.7.4.1535

W. Mailliard and I. Diamond, Recent advances in the neurobiology of alcoholism: the role of adenosine, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.101, issue.1, pp.39-46, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2003.10.002

T. Manabe, A. Aiba, A. Yamada, T. Ichise, H. Sakagami et al., Regulation of long-term potentiation by H-Ras through NMDA receptor phosphorylation [In Process Citation], J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.2504-2511, 2000.

R. Mattingly, Phosphorylation of Serine 916 of Ras-GRF1 Contributes to the Activation of Exchange Factor Activity by Muscarinic Receptors, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.274, issue.52, pp.37379-37384, 1999.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.274.52.37379

N. Mcgough, D. He, M. Logrip, J. Jeanblanc, K. Phamluong et al., RACK1 and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Homeostatic Pathway That Regulates Alcohol Addiction, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.24, issue.46, pp.10542-10552, 2004.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3714-04.2004

S. Moodie, B. Willumsen, M. Weber, and A. Wolfman, Complexes of Ras.GTP with Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, Science, vol.260, issue.5114, pp.1658-1661, 1993.
DOI : 10.1126/science.8503013

A. Mor, G. Keren, Y. Kloog, and J. George, N-Ras or K-Ras inhibition increases the number and enhances the function of Foxp3 regulatory T cells, European Journal of Immunology, vol.66, issue.6, pp.1493-1502, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200838292

M. Mulligan, I. Ponomarev, R. Hitzemann, J. Belknap, B. Tabakoff et al., Toward understanding the genetics of alcohol drinking through transcriptome meta-analysis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.103, issue.16, pp.6368-6373, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0510188103

J. Neasta, B. Hamida, S. Yowell, Q. Carnicella, S. et al., Role for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in neuroadaptations underlying alcohol-related disorders, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.46, pp.20093-20098, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1005554107

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00800434

J. Neasta, B. Hamida, S. Yowell, Q. Carnicella, S. et al., AKT Signaling Pathway in the Nucleus Accumbens Mediates Excessive Alcohol Drinking Behaviors, Biological Psychiatry, vol.70, issue.6, pp.575-582, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.03.019

P. Orban, P. Chapman, and R. Brambilla, Is the Ras-MAPK signalling pathway necessary for long-term memory formation?, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.22, issue.1, pp.38-44, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0166-2236(98)01306-X

A. Robison and E. Nestler, Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.59, issue.11, pp.623-637, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn3111

D. Ron and R. Messing, Signaling Pathways Mediating Alcohol Effects, Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-28720-6_161

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684072

D. Rubinson, C. Dillon, A. Kwiatkowski, C. Sievers, L. Yang et al., A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference, Nature Genetics, vol.33, issue.3, pp.401-406, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/ng1117

S. Russo, D. Dietz, D. Dumitriu, J. Morrison, R. Malenka et al., The addicted synapse: mechanisms of synaptic and structural plasticity in nucleus accumbens, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.33, issue.6, pp.267-276, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tins.2010.02.002

S. Sebti and A. Hamilton, Farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitors and cancer therapy: Lessons from mechanism and bench-to-bedside translational studies, Oncogene, vol.19, issue.56, pp.6584-6593, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.onc.1204146

J. Simms, P. Steensland, B. Medina, K. Abernathy, L. Chandler et al., Intermittent Access to 20% Ethanol Induces High Ethanol Consumption in Long-Evans and Wistar Rats, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol.70, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.1816-1823, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00753.x

G. Sprow and T. Thiele, The neurobiology of binge-like ethanol drinking: Evidence from rodent models, Physiology & Behavior, vol.106, issue.3, pp.325-331, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.12.026

Y. Takai, T. Sasaki, and T. Matozaki, Small GTP-Binding Proteins, Physiol Rev, vol.81, pp.153-208, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0074-7696(08)61861-6

C. Thornton, R. Yaka, S. Dinh, and R. D. , H-Ras Modulates N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Function via Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.26, pp.23823-23829, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M302389200

V. Vengeliene, A. Bilbao, A. Molander, and R. Spanagel, Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.62, issue.Suppl 2, pp.299-315, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/bjp.2008.30

D. Wang, K. Martin, and R. Zukin, Spatially restricting gene expression by local translation at synapses, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.33, issue.4, pp.173-182, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tins.2010.01.005

H. Yang, D. Cooley, J. Legakis, Q. Ge, R. Andrade et al., Phosphorylation of the Ras-GRF1 Exchange Factor at Ser916/898 Reveals Activation of Ras Signaling in the Cerebral Cortex, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.15, pp.13278-13285, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M209805200

X. Ye and T. Carew, Small G Protein Signaling in Neuronal Plasticity and Memory Formation: The Specific Role of Ras Family Proteins, Neuron, vol.68, issue.3, pp.340-361, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.09.013

F. Zhang and P. Casey, Protein Prenylation: Molecular Mechanisms and Functional Consequences, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol.65, issue.1, pp.241-269, 1996.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.bi.65.070196.001325